• Issue
    Volume 7, Issue 3
    March 2020

Issue Information

Open Access

Issue Information

  • First Published: 10 March 2020

Research Articles

Open Access

Shallow Seafloor Gas emissions Near Heard and McDonald Islands on the Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Indian Ocean

  • First Published: 10 December 2019
Key Points

  • Active submarine gas emission around Heard and McDonald Islands on the Central Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean
  • Gas release near the McDonald Islands possibly shallow diffuse hydrothermal venting, uncommon on an intraplate large igneous province
  • Gas release near Heard Island either or both a biogenic orthermogenic methane seep, the second reported in the Southern Ocean to date

Open Access

The 2018 Mw 7.5 Papua New Guinea Earthquake: A Possible Complex Multiple Faults Failure Event With Deep-Seated Reverse Faulting

  • First Published: 11 December 2019
Key Points

  • Complete coseismic surface deformation generated from InSAR helps determine ruptured faults and constrain the complex source parameters
  • The 2018 Mw 7.5 Papua New Guinea earthquake was characterized by deep-seated reverse faulting with ruptures extending into depths of 25 km
  • This event revealed the possible strain partitioning in the Papuan fold and thrust belt and can help explain its growth

Open Access

Shear Wave Speed of Shallow Seafloor Sediments in the Northern South China Sea and Their Correlations With Physical Parameters

  • First Published: 02 January 2020
Key Points

  • Shear wave speed and physical properties of sediments in the continental shelf were compared with those in the continental slope
  • Prediction formulas of shear wave speed based on porosity, density, water content, average grain size were established
  • The prediction formulas established in this study were compared with those of other study areas, and their differences were analyzed

Open Access

Time-Latitude Distribution of Prominences for 10 Solar Cycles: A Study Using Kodaikanal, Meudon, and Kanzelhohe Data

  • First Published: 03 January 2020
Key Points

  • Calibration of Ca II K disc-blocked digitized images as recorded in Kodaikanal observatory for the period of 1906–2002
  • Automated detection of prominences for 10 solar cycles (1906–2018) using images from Kodaikanal, Meudon and Kanzelhohe Observatory
  • Clear identification of nonlinear poleward migration, estimation of migration rates through piecewiselinear fits for 10 solar cycles

Open Access

Once Again on Preliminary Reference Earth Model

  • First Published: 28 January 2020
Key Points

  • Deformation properties of solid bodies required to study the data within thermobaric conditions of the Earth's core have been outlined
  • Birch's diagrams of nonlinearly deformed media are constructed using nonclassical linearized approach
  • The “key” of geomechanical analysis that considers specification of deformation process of solid bodies has been offered.

Open Access

A Brief Assessment of the Impact of Nearly 40 Years of Assimilated Observations Over the Amazon Basin

  • First Published: 30 January 2020
Key Points

  • Pre-EOS satellite radiances contribute most to FSOI over the Amazon basin
  • In the EOS era, radiosonde observations are the largest contributors to forecast error reduction in the region
  • Satellite winds are large contributors to forecast error reduction, but mainly during wet periods

Open Access

A Century of Turbulent Cascades and the Emergence of Multifractal Operators

  • First Published: 03 February 2020
Key Points

  • The concept of cascades has been inspiring for nonlinear geophysics for a century and has led to the breakthrough of multifractals
  • New developments on stochastic algebra of cascade generators were needed for vectors to bridge the gap between potentials and applications
  • Gauss-Clifford and Lévy–Clifford generators combine statistical universality and robust algebraic properties

Open Access

Climate Changes and Their Teleconnections With ENSO Over the Last 55 Years, 1961–2015, in Floods-Dominated Basin, Jiangxi Province, China

  • First Published: 03 February 2020
Key Points

  • Both precipitation and temperature generally increased over Jiangxi province, during the period of 1961-2015
  • Temporal trends of precipitation and temperature were spatially different
  • The ENSO events starting in May and October need more attention

Open Access

Validation and Accuracy Analysis of the Collection 6.1 MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Over the Westernmost City in China Based on the Sun-Sky Radiometer Observations From SONET

  • First Published: 19 February 2020
Key Points

  • Compared to the performance of MODIS AOD retrievals from C6 MYD and C6.1 MOD in Kashi region, find the C6.1 MYD AOD is more effectively
  • There is an overall underestimation of DB AOD, while DT AOD that is slightly outperformed DB AOD in Kashi is overestimated on the whole
  • For the uncertainty of C6.1 MYD AOD retrievals, all of the surface reflectance, aerosol model and loading are contributive

Open Access

Can Terrestrial Water Storage Dynamics be Estimated From Climate Anomalies?

  • First Published: 20 February 2020
Key Points

  • A terrestrial water storage (TWS) dynamics model based on climate forcing and machine learning was proposed
  • The model nicely reproduced GRACE observations and well identified past drought and flood extremes in Pearl River basin, China
  • The importance of input variables to the TWS dynamics model was quantified and the precipitation of the prior 2 months is the most important one

Open Access

New Methods for Linking Science Objectives to Remote Sensing Observations: A Concept Study Using Single- and Dual-Pair Satellite Gravimetry Architectures

  • First Published: 20 February 2020
Key Points

  • This paper aims at a new method to directly link science objectives to the expected performance of a satellite gravity mission architecture
  • The presented space versus time versus accuracy grids give a comprehensive overview over the performance of a satellite mission architecture

Open Access

Evaluation on the Vertical Distribution of Liquid and Ice Phase Cloud Fraction in Community Atmosphere Model Version 5.3 using Spaceborne Lidar Observations

  • First Published: 20 February 2020
Key Points

  • Global climate model underestimates liquid cloud fraction and overestimates ice cloud fraction at high, medium, and low levels
  • The misclassification of cloud phase causes that 50% supercooled liquid fraction line is 15° warmer than observation
  • Model produces excessive ice cloud in extratropics and insufficient liquid cloud in tropics in mixed-phase levels

Open Access

Impacts of Humidity Adjustment Through Radar Data Assimilation Using Cloud Analysis on the Analysis and Prediction of a Squall Line in Southern China

  • First Published: 20 February 2020
Key Points

  • An enhanced vertical velocity-dependent moisture adjustment scheme produces better squall line structures in both analysis and forecast
  • The “overwarming” issue associated with the original scheme is linked to more latent heat release associated with higher condensation rate
  • Condensation into and evaporation of cloud water dominates latent heating/cooling below the freezing level

Open Access

Dictionary-Based Automated Information Extraction From Geological Documents Using a Deep Learning Algorithm

  • First Published: 20 February 2020
Key Points

  • An effective text filter method is proposed for reducing unnecessary computational processing of irrelevant geological text
  • A novel and unified framework that combines domain-specific knowledge BiLSTM for effective geological text classification is proposed
  • A training data set is constructed for evaluating the experimental performance

Open Access

Deriving Surface Ages on Mars Using Automated Crater Counting

  • First Published: 20 February 2020

Key Points

  • We built a library of 7,048 craters to train a Crater Detection Algorithm (CDA) that we developed based on a neural network architecture
  • We applied our algorithm to the Mars global THEMIS mosaic, generating results comparable to manual counting
  • We applied the CDA to higher-resolution images generating model ages indistinguishable (within error) from literature ages

Open Access

Sensitivity of Tropical Cyclone Formation to Resolution-Dependent and Independent Tracking Schemes in High-Resolution Climate Model Simulations

  • First Published: 25 February 2020
Key Points

  • The detected TCs using the CSIRO (resolution-dependent) scheme are a subset of the OWZP (resolution-independent) detections
  • The CSIRO scheme performs better in the high-resolution model compared to the reanalysis that has underrepresentation of TC intensity
  • The study observes comparatively better performance of the TC frequency characteristics using the resolution-independent tracking scheme (OWZP)

Open Access

Quantifying the Probability and Causes of the Surprisingly Active 2018 North Atlantic Hurricane Season

  • First Published: 25 February 2020
Key Points

  • The 2018 North Atlantic hurricane season witnessed activity 25% above the long-term average, due mainly to high activity in the subtropics
  • The environmental fields that explain most variance in long-term hurricane activity all predicted a below-normal 2018 hurricane season
  • The 2018 hurricane season highlights the need for seasonal hurricane outlooks to be issued in terms of probability of exceedance

Open Access

Interevent Seismicity Statistics Associated With the 2018 Quasiperiodic Collapse Events at Kīlauea, HI, USA

  • First Published: 26 February 2020
Key Points

  • The same pattern of seismically quiescent and active periods occurred between every pair of collapse events at the summit
  • The active times had linear rates of seismicity, and the quiescent times had fewer earthquakes
  • Following a large increase in June 2018, there was a general decrease in the active time seismicity rates until the end of the sequence

Open Access

Cloud Characteristics and Radiation Forcing in the Global Land Monsoon Region From Multisource Satellite Data Sets

  • First Published: 26 February 2020
Key Points

  • Similar to precipitation, the global land monsoon regions also have a large cloud amount and cloud radiation forcing that peak in summer
  • Clouds develop to higher level during summer but are inhibited during winter in all regional monsoon, dominated by high-level cloud
  • This study examined the cloud-radiation characteristics using multiple data sets to improve the reliability of our conclusion

Open Access

Triple-Frequency Doppler Retrieval of Characteristic Raindrop Size

  • First Published: 26 February 2020
Key Points

  • A triple-frequency Doppler retrieval for the shape and size of the drop size distribution is developed using 7,900 hr of disdrometer data
  • The triple-frequency Doppler algorithm outperforms the dual-frequency Doppler methodologies in retrieving large characteristic DSD sizes
  • The uncertainty of the triple-frequency methodology for retrieving the characteristic DSD size does not exceed 25% for urn:x-wiley:ess2:media:ess2510:ess2510-math-0015 mm

Open Access

Boundary Layer Parameterizations to Simulate Fog Over Atlantic Canada Waters

  • First Published: 26 February 2020
Key Points

  • Local schemes for planetary boundary layer seem to perform better in fog simulation than nonlocal schemes in WRF mesoscale model
  • The re-examined Kunkel equation with optimized new exponent simulates observed visibility better than the previous version
  • MYNN2.5 is best among the five WRF PBL schemes available in the WRF model to simulate fog over Canada Atlantic Waters

Open Access

A Comprehensive Horizon-Picking Method on Subbottom Profiles by Combining Envelope, Phase Attributes, and Texture Analysis

  • First Published: 26 February 2020
Key Points

  • The proposed method obtains envelope horizons by combining envelope threshold segmentation on the envelope image and texture segmentation on the phase image
  • The proposed method obtains phase horizons by applying template enhancement and horizon tracking to the phase image
  • The final horizons can be obtained by combining envelope horizons and phase horizons

Open Access

Self-Consistent Ice Mass Balance and Regional Sea Level From Time-Variable Gravity

  • First Published: 10 March 2020
Key Points

  • Spatial patterns of sea level change affect gravimetric estimates of ice mass balance
  • Changes in sea level will become increasingly important correction with continued land ice mass losses
  • GRACE Follow-on ice mass balance estimates are consistent with estimates from the original GRACE mission

Open Access

Recent Progress in Lunar Laser Ranging at Grasse Laser Ranging Station

  • First Published: 26 February 2020
Key Points

  • The use of an infrared wavelength has improved the capacities of the Grasse lunar laser ranging station in terms of budget link, reflectors numbers, and synodic period observation
  • The lunar laser ranging statistics from the Grasse station over the year 2018 are presented

Open Access

Quantitative Study of Crustal Structure Spatial Variation Based on Gravity Anomalies in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau: Implication for Earthquake Susceptibility Assessment

  • First Published: 26 February 2020
Key Points

  • Based on the fourth-order wavelet detail map of gravity, we constructed four quantitative indexes to express the spatial changes in the crust
  • Earthquakes are concentrated in the high-value region of the slope (SLP) factor, approximately 11°-18°
  • The earthquake risk assessment efficiency of the SLP increases with the earthquake magnitude

Open Access

Evaluation of NCEP-FNL and ERA-Interim Data Sets in Detecting Tibetan Plateau Vortices in May–August of 2000–2015

  • First Published: 03 March 2020
Key Points

  • Efficiency of NCEP-FNL and ERA-interim data sets in describing the Tibetan Plateau vortices are evaluated
  • Both NCEP-FNL and ERA-interim show good skills in presenting the characteristics of Tibetan Plateau vortices
  • Generally, NCEP-FNL performs better than ERA-interim, though with some caveats

Technical Reports: Data

Open Access

Rheology of Natural Sediments and Its Influence on the Settling of Dropstones in Hemipelagic Marine Sediment

  • First Published: 03 February 2020
Key Points

  • We obtain a new data set of rheology measurements from naturally occurring hemipelagic sediment and a terrestrial mud volcano
  • Comparison with existing measurements indicates that particle composition influences yield stress and consistency
  • Most pumice clasts recovered from IODP 340 are stratigraphically in place and thus date the occurrence of eruptions

Technical Reports: Methods

Open Access

Robust Adaptive Spacecraft Array Derivative Analysis

  • First Published: 15 December 2019
Key Points

  • A unifying and robust framework for satellite array gradient and curl estimations is introduced
  • The adaptive algorithm handles arbitrary numbers of satellites and degenerate arrays
  • A numerically efficient implementation of the algorithm in Python is presented

Open Access

Submeter Resolution Surface Rupture Topography From Legacy Aerial Photographs—A Test Case From the 1992 Landers Earthquake

  • First Published: 30 January 2020
Key Points

  • We use legacy air photos to map submeter resolution topography along the 1992 urn:x-wiley:ess2:media:ess2482:ess2482-math-0008 7.3 Landers earthquake rupture
  • Point clouds constructed using Structure from Motion and generic geographic referencing are geometrically accurate
  • Applying these methods to other modern and historic earthquake photosets could greatly expand the database of slip measurements