• Issue

    Earth's Future: Volume 7, Issue 4

    339-502
    April 2019

Issue Information

Open Access

Issue Information

  • Pages: 339
  • First Published: 09 May 2019

Research Articles

Open Access

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in China From 2005 to 2014

  • Pages: 340-350
  • First Published: 07 March 2019
Key Points

  • GHG emissions from MWWTPs in China (excluding Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan) increased fourfold between 2005 and 2014
  • Treatment by MWWTPs would significantly decrease the GHG generation in comparison with discharging wastewater directly to the environment
  • The regional economic development level and wastewater treatment capacity were the factors most closely related to GHG emissions by MWWTPs

Open Access

Projecting Global Urban Area Growth Through 2100 Based on Historical Time Series Data and Future Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

  • Pages: 351-362
  • First Published: 13 March 2019
Key Points

  • We projected urban area growth until 2100 in each country by developing country-specific urban growth models
  • Global urban area would increase by 40–67% under five SSPs until 2050 with large variations among countries
  • The generated data set is the first country-level urban extents under five SSPs with potential use in studies of global environmental changes

Open Access

Robust Regional Warming Amplifications Directly Following the Anthropogenic Emission

  • Pages: 363-369
  • First Published: 14 March 2019
Key Points

  • Human-induced global warming has greater influences on some undeveloped countries
  • Cloud has the largest contribution to polar amplification, rather than the frequently blamed sea ice decline
  • Heat uptake by the deeper ocean greatly favors the terrestrial amplification

Open Access

Global Opportunities to Increase Agricultural Independence Through Phosphorus Recycling

  • Pages: 370-383
  • First Published: 14 March 2019
Key Points

  • Many nations import mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizers to support agriculture but possess alternative, local, recyclable sources of P in manure and biosolids
  • A global, subnationally resolved analysis revealed where manure-rich and populous cultivated areas occur and, in turn, where P recycling potential may be high
  • Abundant P recycling opportunities exist in nations that have relied on fertilizer imports or had rising fertilizer demand, and these could be important to future agricultural independence

Open Access

Probabilistic Models Significantly Reduce Uncertainty in Hurricane Harvey Pluvial Flood Loss Estimates

  • Pages: 384-394
  • First Published: 27 March 2019
Key Points

  • Recent severe pluvial flood events highlight the need to integrate pluvial flooding in urban flood risk assessment
  • Probabilistic models provide reliable estimation of pluvial flood loss across spatial scales
  • Beta distribution model reduces the 90% prediction interval for Hurricane Harvey building loss by U.S.$3.8 billion or 78%

Open Access

Impacts of Sulfate Geoengineering on Rice Yield in China: Results From a Multimodel Ensemble

  • Pages: 395-410
  • First Published: 22 March 2019
Key Points

  • G4 sulfate geoengineering is projected to increase irrigated rice yield in China by 5.3 ± 5.7%
  • G4 sulfate geoengineering is projected to increase rainfed rice yield in China by 4.8 ± 7.3%
  • Temperature is the dominant factor driving the rice yield changes

Open Access

Temporally Compound Heat Wave Events and Global Warming: An Emerging Hazard

  • Pages: 411-427
  • First Published: 01 March 2019
Key Points

  • Hazard from temporally compound heat waves will disproportionately increase with global warming
  • Increase is controlled by mean shift in temperature and average local weather, not change in weather
  • Vulnerability from prior heat waves should be considered in assessing heat wave risk

Open Access

Global Rules Mask the Mitigation Challenge Facing Developing Countries

  • Pages: 428-432
  • First Published: 22 March 2019
Key Points

  • Focusing on global mitigation pathways masks key aspects of technical, political, and social feasibility at the country level
  • Even if the United States, European Union, China, and India could strengthen their NDCs, the RoW would need to reach zero emissions by 2030 to achieve the Paris goal

Open Access

The U.S. Water Data Gap—A Survey of State-Level Water Data Platforms to Inform the Development of a National Water Portal

  • Pages: 433-449
  • First Published: 01 March 2019
Key Points

  • We discuss key data gaps in ground and surface water, quality, use, and financial data that hinder water management in the United States
  • We review state-level approaches to online platform for water data, analytics, visualization, and projections, identifying content and tools
  • We conclude with recommendations for the development of a national water data portal to inform public and private decisions

Open Access

Why Does Amazon Precipitation Decrease When Tropical Forests Respond to Increasing CO2?

  • Pages: 450-468
  • First Published: 15 March 2019
Key Points

  • Increasing CO2 over the Amazon causes a drier, warmer, and expanded boundary layer and reduces basin-wide rainfall within the first day
  • On synoptic timescales, enhanced lower free troposphere moisture is advected westward by the low-level jet, increasing Andean rainfall
  • A wetter Andes, dryer Amazon pattern is robust across regional and global climate models and for different convective formulations

Open Access

Disappearing World Heritage Glaciers as a Keystone of Nature Conservation in a Changing Climate

  • Pages: 469-479
  • First Published: 29 April 2019
Key Points

  • First inventory and study of the 19,000 glaciers located in natural World Heritage sites is presented
  • In response to anthropogenic warming, these glaciers are expected to lose 33% to 60% of their volume by 2100
  • The conservation of World Heritage glaciers is paramount in a changing climate because of their key role in planetary ecosystems

Open Access

China's Urban Methane Emissions From Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

  • Pages: 480-490
  • First Published: 15 April 2019
Key Points

  • The methane emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants of 229 Chinese cities were 29.2 MtCO2e in 2014
  • Large cities located in the prosperous eastern China had larger methane emissions in absolute and per capita terms
  • Cities with higher GDP, household food consumption expenditure, or household consumption expenditure tend to emit more methane

Open Access

Frequent interactions of Tibet's CO2 emissions with those of other regions in China

  • Pages: 491-502
  • First Published: 28 March 2019
Key Points

  • Tibet displays unique emission patterns with China's highest ratio of consumption- to production-based emissions
  • Virtual flow of Tibet's emissions is enabled by Qinghai-Tibet railway and should be enhanced under Belt and Road Initiative
  • Tibet has high carbon footprint but low life expectancy, and a more sustainable pathway should be guided