• Issue

    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres: Volume 119, Issue 22

    i-iv, 12,447-12,909, 12910-12927, 12,928-13,041
    27 November 2014

Issue Information

Free Access

Issue Information

  • Pages: i-iv
  • First Published: 15 December 2014

Research Articles

Climate and Dynamics

Free Access

Spatial and temporal characteristics of warm season convection over Pearl River Delta region, China, based on 3 years of operational radar data

  • Pages: 12,447-12,465
  • First Published: 13 October 2014
Key Points

  • Convective features in PRD during warm season
  • Monthly variation of diurnal cycle, depth, and distribution of convection
  • Mechanisms of coastal convection in PRD

Free Access

Increasing the detectability of external influence on precipitation by correcting feature location in GCMs

  • Pages: 12,466-12,478
  • First Published: 21 October 2014
Key Points

  • Detection and attribution of precipitation has proved difficult
  • Location biases in GCMs make comparisons with observations difficult
  • Removing these biases aids the detection of an external forcing

Free Access

On the relationship between continuing current and positive leader growth

  • Pages: 12,479-12,488
  • First Published: 14 October 2014
Key Points

  • Growth of the positive leader does not determine CC duration

Free Access

Comparison of decadal global water vapor changes derived from independent satellite time series

  • Pages: 12,489-12,499
  • First Published: 21 October 2014
Key Points

  • Intercomparison of independent global water vapor observations (1996–2005)
  • Error estimation of decadal water vapor trends
  • Trends of the two water vapor data sets are not significantly different

Open Access

Magnitude of extreme heat waves in present climate and their projection in a warming world

  • Pages: 12,500-12,512
  • First Published: 24 October 2014
Key Points

  • Definition of a new Heat Wave Magnitude Index
  • Classification of the magnitude of the heat waves occurred in the present
  • Prediction of heat wave magnitude under climate scenarios

Free Access

On the impact of forced roll convection on vertical turbulent transport in cold air outbreaks

  • Pages: 12,513-12,532
  • First Published: 27 October 2014
Key Points

  • Parameter study on roll convection in cold air outbreaks using LES
  • For each scenario a roll and a nonroll case was simulated
  • Rolls contribute to vertical transports, but total transports were not affected

Free Access

Assessment of downscaled current and future projections of diurnal rainfall patterns for the Himalaya

  • Pages: 12,533-12,545
  • First Published: 25 October 2014
Key Points

  • Diurnal precipitation cycle in high-resolution regional climate simulations
  • Model simulates the diurnal cycle reasonably well
  • Modest changes in diurnal precipitation under RCP8.5 emission scenario

Free Access

Seasonal prediction of the South Pacific Convergence Zone in the austral wet season

  • Pages: 12,546-12,557
  • First Published: 21 October 2014
Key Points

  • Seasonal prediction systems reproduce the variability of the SPCZ
  • The position and orientation of the SPCZ can be predicted with moderate skill
  • Model representation of the SPCZ suffers from biases

Free Access

Electromagnetic activity before initial breakdown pulses of lightning

  • Pages: 12,558-12,574
  • First Published: 30 October 2014
Key Points

  • An initial E-change (IEC) occurs just before the first initial breakdown pulse
  • The start of the IEC sometimes coincides with an impulsive VHF source
  • Lightning initiation begins with an event that starts the IEC

Free Access

Changes of summer precipitation in China: The dominance of frequency and intensity and linkage with changes in moisture and air temperature

  • Pages: 12,575-12,587
  • First Published: 04 November 2014
Key Points

  • We hope to know if frequency or intensity dominates the rainfall change
  • A new tool is used to estimate the dominance of frequency and intensity
  • Relative importance of moisture and air temperature is also analyzed

Free Access

Variations of stratospheric water vapor over the past three decades

  • Pages: 12,588-12,598
  • First Published: 05 November 2014
Key Points

  • Examination of water vapor entering the stratosphere
  • We show that it is controlled by four factors
  • We see no trends in water entering the stratosphere

Free Access

Northern Hemisphere mid-winter vortex-displacement and vortex-split stratospheric sudden warmings: Influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation

  • Pages: 12,599-12,620
  • First Published: 13 October 2014
Key Points

  • Relation between MJO and different types of SSWs
  • Dependence of different SSWs on QBO
  • Mechanism how MJO and QBO can influence SSWs

Free Access

Observed and projected urban extreme rainfall events in India

  • Pages: 12,621-12,641
  • First Published: 21 October 2014
Key Points

  • Out of 57 only a few urban areas showed increases in extreme rainfall
  • RCMs show significant bias in extreme rainfall over urban areas
  • Rainfall maxima is projected to increase in urban areas

Free Access

Impacts of modified Richards equation on RegCM4 regional climate modeling over East Asia

  • Pages: 12,642-12,659
  • First Published: 21 October 2014
Key Points

  • We implement modified Richards equation into the regional climate model RegCM4
  • Impact of modified Richards equation on simulated summer precipitation is mixed
  • The modified numerical method improves the ground water table depth simulations

Aerosol and Clouds

Free Access

Volcanic sulfate aerosol formation in the troposphere

  • Pages: 12,660-12,673
  • First Published: 16 October 2014
Key Points

  • Topospheric volcanic sulfates are mainly isotopically mass dependent
  • In the troposphere, volcanic SO2 is oxidized by OH and/or TMI-catalyzed O2
  • The study of volcanic sulfate allow to “probe” the atmospheric chemistry

Free Access

Impact of resolution on simulation of closed mesoscale cellular convection identified by dynamically guided watershed segmentation

  • Pages: 12,674-12,688
  • First Published: 21 October 2014
Key Points

  • Enhanced watershed segmentation identifies mesoscale organization based on w
  • Closed MCC organize near the effective resolution of mesoscale models
  • Resolving closed-cell marine stratocumulus depends on boundary layer depth

Free Access

Interpreting the 35 year SBUV PMC record with SOFIE observations

  • Pages: 12,689-12,705
  • First Published: 22 October 2014
Key Points

  • SBUV retrievals of PMC ice mass and particle size for nonspherical particles
  • SBUV and SOFIE are in good agreement on PMC mass and size
  • Roughly half of PMC trend is attributed to lower solar flux since 1979

Free Access

Molecular characterization of S- and N-containing organic constituents in ambient aerosols by negative ion mode high-resolution Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: CalNex 2010 field study

  • Pages: 12,706-12,720
  • First Published: 22 October 2014
Key Points

  • High-resolution mass spectrometry of aerosol particles from CalNex 2010
  • Comparison between two techniques shows good overlap in aerosol composition
  • Observe variation in organosulfate and organonitrate composition during the day

Free Access

Properties of light-absorbing aerosols in the Nagoya urban area, Japan, in August 2011 and January 2012: Contributions of brown carbon and lensing effect

  • Pages: 12,721-12,739
  • First Published: 14 October 2014
Key Points

  • PAS was used to investigate lensing effect and BrC in an urban site
  • A small lensing effect was observed in August, but not in January
  • BrC light absorption contributed in January, but not in August

Free Access

Dominance of goethite over hematite in iron oxides of mineral dust from Western Africa: Quantitative partitioning by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

  • Pages: 12,740-12,754
  • First Published: 13 October 2014
Key Points

  • Goethite exceeds hematite in African mineral dust
  • Calculation of optical properties in dust models have to be revised

Free Access

Bidirectional leader development in sprite-producing positive cloud-to-ground flashes: Origins and characteristics of positive and negative leaders

  • Pages: 12,755-12,779
  • First Published: 21 October 2014
Key Points

  • Comprehensive study of bidirectional leaders in 35 sprite-producing flashes
  • Analysis of speed and extent of in-cloud leaders before/after triggering stroke
  • Carrot sprites often occurred during fast post-return-stroke in-cloud leaders

Free Access

Global simulations of aerosol amount and size using MODIS observations assimilated with an Ensemble Kalman Filter

  • Pages: 12,780-12,806
  • First Published: 30 October 2014
Key Points

  • AOD and Angstrom exponent can constrain model-predicted aerosol amount and size
  • A reduction in model bias occurs with the inclusion of the assimilation system
  • Assimilation techniques can be used to identify systematic model biases

Free Access

Black carbon and other light-absorbing particles in snow of central North America

  • Pages: 12,807-12,831
  • First Published: 28 October 2014
Key Points

  • Light-absorbing particles were measured at 67 central North American sites
  • Sources of snow particulate absorption were soil, biomass burning, and pollution
  • Great Plains snow in North America is cleaner than in the Great Plains of China

Free Access

Spatial and seasonal patterns in urban influence on regional concentrations of speciated aerosols across the United States

  • Pages: 12,832-12,849
  • First Published: 29 October 2014
Key Points

  • Urban excess was estimated for speciated aerosols across the United States
  • Urban excess varied significantly both regionally and seasonally

Open Access

Organic aerosol emission ratios from the laboratory combustion of biomass fuels

  • Pages: 12,850-12,871
  • First Published: 29 October 2014
Key Points

  • OA ERs calculated for U.S. biomass fuels in combustion chamber experiments
  • High variability in ERs both between different fuel types and species
  • Limited dependency on combustion phase as indicated by MCE

Free Access

Supersaturation and diffusional droplet growth in liquid clouds: Polydisperse spectra

  • Pages: 12,872-12,887
  • First Published: 28 October 2014
Key Points

  • Expressions for vertical dependencies of DSD moments are derived
  • Expressions for vertical profiles of supersaturation are derived
  • There is a similarity between the profiles in polydisperse and monodisperse cases

Free Access

Using an explicit emission tagging method in global modeling of source-receptor relationships for black carbon in the Arctic: Variations, sources, and transport pathways

  • Pages: 12,888-12,909
  • First Published: 23 October 2014
Key Points

  • Arctic BC and source contributions have strong seasonal variations
  • Interannual variability is significant in seasonal means of Arctic BC
  • Arctic BC is extremely sensitive to uncertainties in high-latitude emissions

Free Access

Characterizing the convective boundary layer turbulence with a High Spectral Resolution Lidar

  • Pages: 12910-12927
  • First Published: 03 November 2014
Key Points

  • High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) used to measure turbulent motions in CBL
  • HSRL able to observe variance, skewness, and kurtosis of aerosol backscatter
  • Turbulence was not observed to be Gaussian in 17 cases at midlatitude site

Composition and Chemistry

Free Access

Changes in nitrogen oxides emissions in California during 2005–2010 indicated from top-down and bottom-up emission estimates

  • Pages: 12,928-12,952
  • First Published: 23 October 2014
Key Points

  • OMI and surface NO2 are assimilated separately/jointly using 4D-Var method
  • Our top-down estimates are consistent with the latest CARB bottom-up inventory
  • Uncertainties in modeled surface O3 in the Western U.S. are overall reduced

Free Access

Nitrate postdeposition processes in Svalbard surface snow

  • Pages: 12,953-12,976
  • First Published: 20 October 2014
Key Points

  • NO3 deposition and snowpack processes quantified by surface snow sampling
  • NO3 dry deposition dominates over postdeposition loss in Ny-Ålesund surface snow
  • Br decreases while NO3 δ(18O) increases, suggesting tied BrO-NOx chemistry

Free Access

Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles

  • Pages: 12,977-13,003
  • First Published: 21 October 2014
Key Points

  • Atmospheric marine aerosol particles separated into four organic mass types
  • Generated and atmospheric primary marine aerosols have similar compositions
  • Organic composition of primary marine aerosol is linked to seawater organics

Free Access

Nocturnal loss of NOx during the 2010 CalNex-LA study in the Los Angeles Basin

  • Pages: 13,004-13,025
  • First Published: 16 October 2014
Key Points

  • Nocturnal chemistry and the loss of NOx at night are altitude dependent
  • Nocturnal NOx loss in Los Angeles proceeds through aerosol uptake of N2O5
  • Height-averaged nocturnal loss of NOx is comparable to OH + NO2 daytime loss

Free Access

Comparisons of emissivity observations from satellites and the ground at the CRCS Dunhuang Gobi site

  • Pages: 13,026-13,041
  • First Published: 27 October 2014
Key Points

  • Field evidence to support emissivity diurnal variations is presented
  • AIRS emissivities are found not as good as MODIS using the field measurements
  • The UWIREMIS takes advantages of both the high spatial and spectral resolution