• Issue

    Water Resources Research: Volume 60, Issue 6

    June 2024

Issue Information

Free Access

Issue Information

  • First Published: 30 May 2024

Research Article

Open Access

Developing a Fluvial and Pluvial Stochastic Flood Model of Southeast Asia

  • First Published: 03 June 2024
Key Points

  • Global hydrological models can be used to drive a large-scale stochastic flood inundation model in Southeast Asia

  • A reanalysis-based stochastic flood model generates realistic flood events

  • The computed flood exposure exceedance curve for Southeast Asia compares well to the EM-DAT database

Open Access

Relating Pore-Scale Observations to Continuum-Scale Models: Impact of Ganglion Dynamics on Flow Transport Kinetics

  • First Published: 17 June 2024
Key Points

  • Changes in wettability and fluid flow rate induce transitions between connected and disconnected pore-scale flow regimes

  • Transitions between pore-scale flow regimes have significant effects on the saturation function and flow transport kinetics

  • The Lomeland, Ebeltoft, and Thomas (L-E-T) relative permeability model can capture the effects of pore-scale changes in fluid connectivity

Open Access

An Electrical Parameter Characterizing Solute Heterogeneity: The Mixing Factor M

  • First Published: 17 June 2024
Key Points

  • Petrophysical parameter generalizing the high-salinity limit of electrical conduction for heterogeneous fluid conductivity in porous media

  • Formal expression for M provides framework to interpret impact of small-scale fluid conductivity heterogeneity on electrical measurements

  • The mixing factor M depends on geostatistical properties of solute concentration fields and thus on transport characteristics

Open Access

Analysis of Groundwater Time Series With Limited Pumping Information in Unconfined Aquifer: Response Function Based on Lagging Theory

  • First Published: 20 June 2024
Description unavailable

A novel mathematical model for groundwater extraction in unconfined aquifer systems. The model captures drawdown response due to pumping, integrates insights from uniform pumping approach for reflecting heavy pumping activities, the Boussinesq equation for formulating the unconfined flow, and lagging theory for capturing the effect from capillary fringe.

Open Access

Interactions of Logjams, Channel Dynamics, and Geomorphic Heterogeneity Within a River Corridor

  • First Published: 14 June 2024
Key Points

  • Decadal-scale channel dynamism, as reflected in total sinuosity, corresponds to greater logjam presence and persistence through time

  • Higher peak discharges correspond with a greater number and distribution of logjams, but not with greater channel dynamism

  • Logjams, channel dynamism, and beaver meadows increase spatial heterogeneity, as reflected in landscape patch density

Open Access

Illuminating the “Invisible”: Substantial Deep Respiration and Lateral Export of Dissolved Carbon From Beneath Soil

  • First Published: 14 June 2024
Key Points

  • Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was mainly produced in warm summer and exported in wet spring from shallow subsurface

  • Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was comparably produced in the shallow and deep subsurface but exported mostly from the deep subsurface in wet spring

  • DIC originated more from biogenic (soil respiration and deep respiration) than geogenic (carbonate weathering) sources in a carbonate-based catchment

Open Access

Climate Driven Trends in Historical Extreme Low Streamflows on Four Continents

  • First Published: 17 June 2024
Key Points

  • Temporal trends in occurrence rates of extreme low-flow events computed: analysis based on pooling stations by low-flow regimes

  • For 1976–2015, low flow events become more frequent in some warm regimes (related to Pacific Decadal Oscillation), and less frequent in some cold regimes

  • For 1946–2015, low flow events become less frequent across multiple warm and cold regimes

Open Access

Pore-Scale Modeling of Reactive Transport with Coupled Mineral Dissolution and Precipitation

  • First Published: 21 June 2024
Key Points

  • A new pore-scale model is developed for multicomponent reactive flow with coupled mineral dissolution and precipitation

  • The proposed model is validated against analytical solutions and reference simulations, and then applied to realistic rocks

  • Three dissolution-precipitation coupling regimes with different flow patterns and porosity-permeability relationships have been identified

Open Access

A Global Assessment of Groundwater Recharge Response to Infiltration Variability at Monthly to Decadal Timescales

  • First Published: 17 June 2024
Key Points

  • The vadose zone globally dampens short-term infiltration fluctuations which stabilizes groundwater level variations

  • Infiltration cycles longer than a year cause transient recharge variation, except in semi-arid and arid regions

  • Soil characteristics impact short-term infiltration fluctuations but have a small effect on recharge dampening at longer infiltration cycles

Open Access

A Novel Regional-Minima Image Segmentation Method for Fluid Transport Simulations in Unresolved Rock Images

  • First Published: 22 June 2024
Key Points

  • We proposed a novel regional-minima segmentation method designed for reconstructing pore spaces from unresolved images

  • The method provides improved pore- and throat-size distribution and flow paths

  • The method enhances the accuracy of fluid-flow simulations

Open Access

Impact of Depth-Dependent Heterogeneity in Aquifers on the Response of Unsaturated-Saturated Flow to Earth Tides

  • First Published: 11 June 2024
Key Points

  • Decay in conductivity with depth causes an increase in amplitude ratio and a decrease in phase shift

  • Influence of capillary zones on tidal responses is restricted to shallow aquifers due to decrease in conductivity with depth

  • Homogeneous solutions estimate mean conductivity well with smaller decay rates of conductivity, but underestimate with larger decay rates

Open Access

A Comparative Analysis of Logarithmic Law, Reynolds Stress, and Turbulence Kinetic Energy Methods for Bed Shear Stress Estimation in Complex Open-Channel Flow

  • First Published: 19 June 2024
Key Points

  • Indirect methods were tested to estimate bed shear stress in a complex flow setting using high-resolution large-eddy simulation data

  • Log-law and turbulence kinetic energy methods were effective for straight flow regions but unsuitable for regions with complex flows

  • The Reynolds shear stress method using two-point extrapolation with a lower point close to the bed was the most effective

Editorial

Open Access

Hydrological Research Evolution: A Large Language Model-Based Analysis of 310,000 Studies Published Globally Between 1980 and 2023

  • First Published: 20 June 2024
Key Points

  • We explore the literature review capability of a large language model combined with geocoding over the whole field of hydrological research

  • We quantify the evolution of hydrological research, hotspot topics, collaboration networks, and basins in focus, worldwide over time

  • Hydrological research publication exhibits major and accelerating growth with WRR emerging as the top influential journal over time

Research Article

Open Access

Evaluation of Different Numerical Approaches to Modeling Flood Flows Over Groynes

  • First Published: 14 June 2024
Key Points

  • Characterizing the effect of groynes on river flow in two-dimensional hydrodynamic models by using weir formulas was evaluated

  • Alternative methods to implement groynes into two- and three-dimensional river models were proposed, and their reliability was tested

  • The performances of two of the available modeling options in simulating the groyne modifications were assessed

Open Access

Toward Flash Flood Modeling Using Gradient Resolving Representative Hillslopes

  • First Published: 14 June 2024
Key Points

  • Physically based representative hillslope models can be used for flash flood predictions in small data-scarce and rural catchments

  • Climate reanalysis data enable the initialization of a process-based model, helping to reduce the uncertainties in estimating antecedent soil conditions

  • Transfer of model parameters within the same hydrological landscape is feasible

Open Access

Reservoir Mud Releasing May Suboptimize Fluvial Sand Supply to Coastal Sediment Budget: Modeling the Impact of Shihmen Reservoir Case on Tamsui River Estuary

  • First Published: 08 June 2024
Key Points

  • Increasingly adopted mud release strategy is effective to mitigate reservoir siltation yet suboptimal to alleviate coastal sediment deficit

  • Flood-driven tributary-sourced sands dominate supply to coastal sediment budget yet sand delivery is reduced by mantling of released muds

  • Sand delivery deficit (relative to sand delivery of clear-water flood release scenario) increases linearly with degree of bed mud saturation

Open Access

A New Phase Diagram for Fluid Invasion Patterns as a Function of Pore-Scale Heterogeneity, Surface Roughness, and Wettability

  • First Published: 05 June 2024
Key Points

  • The interplay of pore-scale heterogeneity, wettability, and surface roughness controls displacement patterns and capillary trapping efficiency

  • The invasion pattern for capillary flow were visualized by micro-CT- and micromodel experiments and classified in a new phase diagram

  • Four generic flow regimes (phases) were observed: frontal advance, wetting and drainage invasion percolation, and ordinary percolation

Open Access

Viewing Soil Moisture Flash Drought Onset Mechanism and Their Changes Through XAI Lens: A Case Study in Eastern China

  • First Published: 11 June 2024
Key Points

  • A novel framework combining interpretable machine learning and cluster techniques was proposed to investigate flash drought mechanism

  • Four distinct types of driving mechanisms of flash drought onset in eastern China were discovered

  • Nearly 70% of flash drought events involve multiple mechanisms, emphasizing the time-varying feature of drought drivers

Open Access

Geographic Characteristics and Meteorological Factors Dominate the Variation of Chlorophyll-a in Lakes and Reservoirs With Higher TP Concentrations

  • First Published: 16 June 2024
Key Points

  • We achieved high accuracy in predicting Chl-a concentrations using a stacking model

  • TN and TP and their stoichiometric ratios did not always align with Chl-a concentrations

  • Geographical characteristics and climatic influences dominate the Chl-a concentrations with higher TP concentrations

Open Access

Long-Term Monitoring of the Annual Irrigated Cropland Extent in Fragmented and Heterogeneous Arid Landscapes Using Machine Learning and Landsat Imagery

  • First Published: 19 June 2024
Key Points

  • A semiautomatic framework was developed to map irrigated cropland in arid and semiarid areas

  • The overall accuracy of the annual irrigated cropland maps in the Heihe River basin ranged from 83% to 88.3%

  • The area of irrigated cropland in the Heihe River basin increased by 76% over the past 31 years

Open Access

Modeling the Effects of Artificial Drainage on Agriculture-Dominated Watersheds Using a Fully Distributed Integrated Hydrology Model

  • First Published: 30 May 2024
Key Points

  • Novel strategy is developed to incorporate effects of artificial drainage into fully distributed basin-scale integrated hydrology model

  • Without site-specific calibration, our model reproduced observed streamflow well and outperformed calibrated SWAT model

  • Numerical experiments reveal the effects of surface and surface drainage on various hydrological states and fluxes

Open Access

Contaminant Transport Modeling and Source Attribution With Attention-Based Graph Neural Network

  • First Published: 03 June 2024
Key Points

  • A novel graph-based deep learning method is proposed for modeling contaminant transport constrained by monitoring data

  • The proposed model quantifies the contribution of each potential contaminant source to the observed concentration at an arbitrary location

  • The deep learning method substantially reduces the computational cost compared with a physics-based contaminant transport model

Open Access

Stochastic Modeling of Thin Mud Drapes Inside Point Bar Reservoirs With ALLUVSIM-GANSim

  • First Published: 19 June 2024
Key Points

  • The proposed method achieves fast conditional mud drapes stochastic modeling

  • The effectiveness and applicability of the proposed method have been verified in modern channel deposit

  • The proposed method provides technical support for future predictions of mud drapes inside underground point bar reservoirs

Open Access

Quantifying the Regulation Capacity of the Three Gorges Reservoir on Extreme Hydrological Events and Its Impact on Flow Regime in a Changing Climate

  • First Published: 17 June 2024
Key Points

  • An ensemble learning model based on two neural networks is constructed to simulate Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) operations

  • TGR can mitigate floods and droughts, but this capability might be weakened by more severe future extreme events

  • TGR can offset most flow regime changes caused by climate change, but adaptive operation strategies are still needed

Open Access

Improved Representation of Vegetation Soil Moisture Coupling Enhances Soil Moisture Data Assimilation in Water-Limited Regimes: A Case Study Over Texas

  • First Published: 17 June 2024
Key Points

  • Vegetation phenology plays a key role in regulating dynamics of SM, and this role is especially prominent in the water-stressed regions

  • Improving climatology of phenology as represented by LAI alone leads to more accurate estimates of RZSM by a land surface model

  • Improved vegetation phenology enhances the efficacy of DA in improving RZSM and SSM; its impact varies with SM vertical coupling tightness

Method

Open Access

Reduced Geostatistical Approach With a Fourier Neural Operator Surrogate Model for Inverse Modeling of Hydraulic Tomography

  • First Published: 18 June 2024
Key Points

  • RGA-FNO integrates the reduced geostatistical approach (RGA) with a Fourier neural operator (FNO) surrogate model

  • A highly accurate FNO was trained to learn the solution operators of PDEs in hydraulic tomography, generating multiple hydraulic head data

  • RGA-FNO can efficiently produce satisfactory estimations for random transmissivity fields with high-rank, small-scale heterogeneities

Commentary

Open Access

Telling Tales of Water Journeys With Isotopic Tracers

  • First Published: 17 June 2024

Key Points

  • The source of water inside plants, which can vary with season and across the field, can be traced using isotopes in water

  • Gai et al. (2023, https://doi.org/10.1029/2022wr033849) present a systematic assessment of tracers and mixing models to partition water sources in vegetation

  • Understanding water use strategies in vegetation can support modeling the response to extreme environmental conditions, such as droughts

Research Article

Open Access

Importance of Variable Turbine Efficiency in Run-Of-River Hydropower Design Under Deep Uncertainty

  • First Published: 15 June 2024
Key Points

  • Traditional approaches to hydropower planning need to be revisited to account for the impact of a variable climate on turbine efficiency

  • Maximizing the benefit cost ratio rather than the net present value promotes smaller designs, better adapted to a drought-prone world

  • Socio-economic and climatic factors are both crucial to design financial robustness

Open Access

BaHys—A Bayesian Modeling Framework for Long-Term Concentration-Discharge Hysteresis: A Case Study on Chloride

  • First Published: 11 June 2024
Key Points

  • We propose a Bayesian model to study C-Q hysteresis in the long term and we test it on a 28-year time series of chloride in the river Rhine

  • Merging mass balance and observations with Bayesian modeling allows extracting relevant hydrochemical properties of C-Q hysteresis

  • We reveal a prevalent clockwise dilution behavior and decreasing trends of diffuse and low-flow inputs for chloride due to mining cessation

Open Access

Managing and Prioritizing Investments in Urban Waterways: Empirical Insights Into the Preferences of the Public and Experts

  • First Published: 17 June 2024
Key Points

  • We introduce a framework for conceptualizing the amenity of urban waterways

  • Best-worst scaling is applied to examine how households and experts rate the relative importance of amenity attributes of urban waterways

  • Findings inform waterway managers seeking to improve the allocation of resources and generate the most efficient amenity outcomes

Open Access

On the Sensitivity of Future Hydrology in the Colorado River to the Selection of the Precipitation Partitioning Method

  • First Published: 07 June 2024
Key Points

  • The precipitation partitioning method (PPM) impacts the simulation of snowfall and snowpack dynamics in the Colorado River Basin (CRB)

  • The selection of PPM also determines the sensitivity of streamflow projections in the CRB under climate change scenarios

  • Spatial variations in the impact of PPM reveal distinct climate change sensitivities in high and low elevation regions in the CRB

Open Access

Revealing High-Temporal-Resolution Flood Evolution With Low Latency Using GRACE Follow-On Ranging Data

  • First Published: 15 June 2024
Key Points

  • Flood monitoring based on the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Follow-On laser and microwave ranging observations with 3–5 days resolution

  • Two 2021 summer floods of about 40 gigatons in Western Europe and Central China are compared

  • GRACE Follow-On's flood detectability has been enhanced to detect floods as small as 16 gigatons

Open Access

Borehole-Based Interval Kriging for 3D Lithofacies Modeling

  • First Published: 06 June 2024
Key Points

  • An improved 3D kriging method is presented for irregular interval supports to efficiently perform complex lithofacies modeling

  • A new nested 3D irregular interval semivariogram is derived for modeling 3D anisotropies

  • A best linear unbiased estimator is from minimizing regularized estimation variance using a global-local embedded genetic algorithm

Open Access

Catchment Coevolution and the Geomorphic Origins of Variable Source Area Hydrology

  • First Published: 17 June 2024
Key Points

  • A landscape evolution model with runoff from shallow groundwater was used to explore how hydrological function coevolves with topography

  • Landscapes evolve toward equilibrium where unchanneled uplands supply just enough for persistence of lowland saturated areas

  • We found local relief decreases log-linearly with the fraction of runoff generated by saturation excess, in agreement with field studies

Open Access

Demonstrating a Hybrid Machine Learning Approach for Snow Characteristic Estimation Throughout the Western United States

  • First Published: 20 June 2024
Key Points

  • A hybrid approach combining machine learning and physical model output was developed and trained over a wide range of snow conditions

  • The hybrid model estimated snow density and snow water equivalent with improved accuracy relative to data-driven and physical models

  • Local training of the hybrid model did not improve snow estimates over a model trained at all study sites across the western United States

Open Access

Longitudinal Recovery of Suspended Sediment Downstream of Large Dams in the US

  • First Published: 12 June 2024
Key Points

  • Satellite-derived suspended sediment concentration (SSC) shows rivers recovery to pre-reservoir SSC downstream of 71% of dams in the US

  • The length of river required to longitudinally recover SSC downstream of dams is most strongly associated with reservoir and river size

  • Multidecadal satellite SSC observations provide a new metric for assessing the long-term mean downstream response to dams

Open Access

Salinity Profiles in Coastal Aquifers: A Characterization Framework for Field Measurements

  • First Published: 19 June 2024
Key Points

  • Framework for characterizing coastal aquifer salinity profiles and mixing zone characteristics is presented

  • One hundred and seventy salinity profiles well matched to fitting function, with fitting parameters linked to five key interface attributes

  • Mixing zone rise time-lagged head drop in some wells, with smaller mixing zone changes relative to the Ghyben-Herzberg ratio

Open Access

GPU-Accelerated Urban Flood Modeling Using a Nonuniform Structured Grid and a Super Grid Scale River Channel

  • First Published: 14 June 2024
Key Points

  • A nonuniform structured grid with a super grid river channel model is implemented on GPU for efficient meter-scale urban flood modeling

  • As an extension of the subgrid model approach, this integration allows a seamless transition between subgrid and super grid channels

  • A ∼10× speedup compared to CPU computations is achieved by leveraging GPU architectures

Open Access

Data Assimilation Informed Model Structure Improvement (DAISI) for Robust Prediction Under Climate Change: Application to 201 Catchments in Southeastern Australia

  • First Published: 12 June 2024
Key Points

  • Data Assimilation Informed model Structure Improvement method diagnoses hydrological model structures by combining data assimilation with a polynomial update of state equations

  • The method was applied to the GR2M rainfall-runoff model with significantly improved streamflow simulations in 201 Australian catchments

  • The method identified updates to state equations with marked regional characteristics that could guide future improvement of GR2M

Open Access

The Complexity of Moisture Sources Affects the Altitude Effect of Stable Isotopes of Precipitation in Inland Mountainous Regions

  • First Published: 21 June 2024
Key Points

  • The altitude effect has significant seasonal variation, being strong in summer and weakest in winter

  • The contribution of recirculating water vapor to precipitation is large, weakening the altitude effect

  • The source of water vapor and the nature of the air masses contribute to the differences in elevation effects

Open Access

Hydrodynamics of Meander Chute Cutoffs in Microtidal Mudflats

  • First Published: 19 June 2024
Key Points

  • Hydroacoustic measurements of flow velocities in a mudflat cutoff show critical differences with fluvial counterparts

  • Hydrodynamics of the tidal chute cutoff are correlated to the changes of water depth

  • Poorly-developed plug bars and frequent flow confluences can keep tidal cutoffs hydrologically-connected to parent channels

Open Access

Long-Term Trends in Productivity Across Intermountain West Lakes Provide No Evidence of Widespread Eutrophication

  • First Published: 12 June 2024
Key Points

  • Remote sensing imagery captures long-term trends in lake productivity across the Intermountain West

  • The majority of lakes observed in this data set were not exhibiting shifts in trophic status from 1984 to 2019

  • The incorporation of fine-scale lake climate data from new deep learning data sets results in substantial improvement to model accuracy

Open Access

Anomaly Detection Using Machine Learning in Hydrochemical Data From Hot Springs: Implications for Earthquake Prediction

  • First Published: 18 June 2024
Key Points

  • An earthquake prediction model based on machine learning using hydrochemical data from hot springs is proposed with sufficient accuracy

  • The earthquake prediction accuracy of the local outlier factor algorithm outperformed the traditional statistical method

  • The predictive performance of the model varies across different hot springs, indicators type, and model parameters

Open Access

Imbalances in Dissolved Elemental Export Fluxes Disclose “Hidden” Critical Zone Compartments

  • First Published: 17 June 2024
Key Points

  • Imbalances between short-term and long-term estimates of element-specific chemical weathering fluxes (DEE < 1) emerge in deep saprolite

  • Elements with shallow C-Q slopes showing chemostatic or enrichment behavior are likely exported in colloidal form during flushing events

  • Elements with steeper C-Q slopes showing weak dilution behavior remain in re-growing biomass or are exported in particulate biogenic form

Open Access

Hydrogeologic Framework Model-Based Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Flow and Salt Transport and Analytic Hierarchy Process-Based Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Optimal Pumping Location and Rate for Mitigation of Seawater Intrusion in a Complex Coastal Aquifer System

  • First Published: 17 June 2024
Key Points

  • Numerical simulations with successful model calibration show that spatial and temporal changes in groundwater flow and salt transport significantly depend on candidate pumping locations and rates

  • Statistical estimations of the mesh Peclet and Courant numbers confirm acceptabilities of minimizing numerical dispersion in the numerical simulations

  • Multi-criteria evaluations determine optimal pumping location and rate, and consistency checks confirm consistencies of judgments in the multi-criteria evaluations

Open Access

A Flow-Curvature-Based Model for Channel Meandering in Tidal Marshes

  • First Published: 20 June 2024
Key Points

  • Novel, depth-averaged, Cartesian-grid-based numerical model to simulate channel meandering in tidal marshes

  • Realistic tidal channel morphologies and dynamics are reproduced, including cuspate bends, meander cutoffs, and channel piracies

  • Model simulates the ecomorphodynamic evolution of tidal marshes with branching and meandering channel networks over decades to millennia

Open Access

Effects of Initial Injection Condition on Colloid Retention

  • First Published: 12 June 2024
Key Points

  • The study finds that initial injection conditions strongly influence colloid transport and retention profiles

  • Different injection methods lead to varied retention patterns, revealing insights into anomalous transport in porous media

  • The findings underscore the importance of injection conditions in experimental design to better understand colloid transport behavior

Open Access

Explicit Consideration of Plant Xylem Hydraulic Transport Improves the Simulation of Crop Response to Atmospheric Dryness in the U.S. Corn Belt

  • First Published: 21 June 2024
Key Points

  • Coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance models alone underestimate vapor pressure deficit (VPD) stress effects on crop stomatal conductance and transpiration

  • Limited plant hydraulic transport capability could play a role in plant response to high VPD

  • A simplified representation of plant hydraulic model for capturing VPD stress on plants is proposed

Open Access

The Impact of Clay and Fluid Conductivity on the Electrical-Diffusion Tortuosity Correlations in Sandstone Reservoirs

  • First Published: 07 June 2024
Key Points

  • Electrical tortuosity (τe) is smaller than NMR-derived diffusion tortuosity (τD) in the presence of clay and at low fluid conductivity

  • The use of high conductivity fluid reduces the impact of clay thus increasing formation factor and increasing τe which converges to τD

  • The NMR diffusion approach presented here can potentially estimate intrinsic electrical formation factor without multi-salinity data

Open Access

Development of a Distributed Physics-Informed Deep Learning Hydrological Model for Data-Scarce Regions

  • First Published: 06 June 2024
Key Points

  • A distributed physics-informed deep learning hydrological model was proposed for data-scarce regions

  • The new model outperforms the traditional distributed hydrologic model in simulating streamflow in upstream held-out stations

  • Our model requires less data for training but performs better than the transfer learning model in spatial generalization

Open Access

Hydraulic River Models From ICESat-2 Elevation and Water Surface Slope

  • First Published: 11 June 2024
Key Points

  • Land elevation and water surface slope estimates from the ICESat-2 lidar altimetry mission are combined to define river cross-sections

  • RMSE of 0.676 m and KGE of 0.88 is achieved for a hydrodynamic model of a stretch of the Mekong River using the derived cross-sections

  • Sections with significant flow acceleration lead to inaccurate cross-sections, but errors are reduced with additional ICESat-2 crossings

Open Access

Spatiotemporal Variability of Hyporheic Flow in a Losing River Section

  • First Published: 03 June 2024
Key Points

  • Active-Distributed Temperature Sensing was used in a lowland stream to assess and map the spatiotemporal variability of stream infiltration

  • An innovative field setup and a new methodology was developed to remove ambient temperature variations from the raw temperature signal

  • Results suggest relatively homogeneous streambed properties and show remarkable stability of hyporheic flow during few years

Open Access

The Impacts of Micro-Porosity and Mineralogical Texture on Fractured Rock Alteration

  • First Published: 04 June 2024
Key Points

  • Spatial variations in altered layers affect the evolution of bulk reaction and permeability in fractured media

  • The characteristic length of reactive mineral clusters dominates the internal texture of the altered layer and permeability enhancement

  • The presence of micro-porosity in the matrix promotes mineral accessibility, reactive transport, and thus thickening of altered layers

Open Access

Time-And-Space Averaging Applied to Intermittent Multiphase Flow Experiments

  • First Published: 12 June 2024
Key Points

  • Synchrotron X-ray micro-CT reveals flow intermittency during the co-injection of immiscible fluids in porous media

  • Saturation fluctuations identified for different fractional flows averaged out over the time scale of a typical experiment

  • Using only a spatial average saturation could lead to inaccuracies in relative permeability. Time-and-space averaging is recommended

Open Access

Comparative Analysis of Supervised Classification Algorithms for Residential Water End Uses

  • First Published: 16 June 2024
Key Points

  • We generated synthetic labeled data representing residential water end uses with a Conditional Tabular Generative Adversarial Network

  • In the context of water end-use data, decision tree-based models emerge as the optimal choice for classification tasks

  • Logistic function-based models, such as logistic regression, are computationally efficient alternatives for classifying specific end uses

Open Access

Model Diagnostic Analysis in a Cold Basin Influenced by Frozen Soils With the Aid of Stable Isotope

  • First Published: 18 June 2024
Key Points

  • Frozen soil resulted in the imbalanced simulation on baseflow and isotope of THREW-T model

  • The developed frozen soil module improved the balance of simulations on multiple objectives

  • The tracer-aided modeling method has significant value on diagnosing model structure and identifying the hydrological impact of frozen soil

Open Access

An Isotope Mass Balance Analysis of Evaporative Loss From Lake Turkana, Kenya Using δ18O and δD of Natural Waters

  • First Published: 30 May 2024
Key Points

  • New measurements of meteoric waters from the Turkana Basin in northern Kenya plot along the meteoric water line

  • A lake water evaporation line is developed using Bayesian modeling applied to a terminal lake mass balance model

  • The model enables predictions of lake water δ values under past and future climate change scenarios

Open Access

Isotope Hydrograph Separation Reveals Rainfall on the Glaciers Will Enhance Ice Meltwater Discharge to the Himalayan Rivers

  • First Published: 31 May 2024
Key Points

  • An isotope mixing model was developed to quantify the contributions of rain, ice, and snow meltwater to the total river discharge

  • We show heavy monsoonal rainfall triggers the melting of glacier ice resulting in enhanced ice meltwater discharge in streams

  • We conclude rainfall events have complex controls on glacial hydrology/processes

Open Access

Enhanced Modulation of Streamflow Flash Droughts by Reservoir Operations in India

  • First Published: 18 June 2024
Key Points

  • Examined the role of dams in modulating flash and conventional streamflow droughts in 36 catchments in India

  • Dams/reservoirs decrease the frequency and severity of streamflow flash droughts (SFDs) during the summer monsoon season

  • Dams modulate the influence of climate variability more effectively on SFDs compared to conventional streamflow droughts

Open Access

Evaluating Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensor Estimates of Snow Water Equivalent in a Prairie Environment Using UAV Lidar

  • First Published: 19 June 2024
Key Points

  • We evaluate cosmic ray neutron sensor (CRNS) snow water equivalent (SWE) estimates using spatially distributed snow observations from lidar at a prairie site

  • We use neutron transport model simulations to calibrate a site-specific weighting function to represent the spatial sensitivity of a CRNS

  • Comparison to model- and lidar-derived SWE show that our CRNS effectively estimates SWE for this heterogenous snowpack

Open Access

Forest Treatment Effects on Watershed Responses Under Warming

  • First Published: 12 June 2024
Key Points

  • Distributed simulations in mountainous watershed show good match with warm and cold season hydrologic data over 16-year period

  • Independent and combined scenarios showed that forest thinning reduces the streamflow impact of warming up to a 4°C increase

  • Forest treatment effects propagated downstream by displacing evapotranspiration from forested uplands to near channel regions

Open Access

Simulation of Microcapsule Transport in Fractured Media Using Coupled CFD-DEM

  • First Published: 14 June 2024
Key Points

  • Middle and mixed-size microcapsules have a higher propensity for sealing a smooth fracture compared to small or large microcapsules

  • In the case of a rough fracture, the presence of rough fracture walls substantially increases the likelihood of sealing the fracture

  • In certain rough fracture cases, two sealing locations can be observed

Open Access

Optimizing Drought Assessment for Soil Moisture Deficits

  • First Published: 18 June 2024
Key Points

  • Optimal drought index timescales for soil moisture are relatively short (less than 100 days) and increase with increasing soil depth

  • The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center, Topofire and Soil Moisture Active Passive L4 models are more accurate than timescale optimized drought indices for soil moisture anomaly prediction

  • Drought monitoring should favor the use of soil moisture models over meteorological drought indices for characterizing soil moisture drought

Open Access

Distribution-Based Model Evaluation and Diagnostics: Elicitability, Propriety, and Scoring Rules for Hydrograph Functionals

  • First Published: 19 June 2024
Key Points

  • Scoring rules of hydrograph functionals provide an information-theoretically principled means for watershed model training, evaluation, and diagnostics

  • We present strictly proper (divergence) scores for flood frequency analysis, flow duration, and recession curves

  • Propriety and elicitability offer useful working paradigms for metric development of hydrograph functionals

Open Access

Integrated Effects of Site Hydrology and Vegetation on Exchange Fluxes and Nutrient Cycling at a Coastal Terrestrial-Aquatic Interface

  • First Published: 06 June 2024
Key Points

  • Tidal elevations, precipitation, and evapotranspiration (ET) interact to control dynamic exchange fluxes across the coastal terrestrial aquatic interface

  • Integrated hydrobiogeochemical modeling reveals variability in redox conditions along gradient of upland, transition, and wetland to ocean

  • The high uncertainty in microbial-remediated aerobic respiration rate has significant impact on modeling carbon cycling in coastal regions

Open Access

Combined Use of Multiple Cloud-Free Snow Cover Products in China and Its High-Mountain Region: Implications From Snow Cover Identification to Snow Phenology Detection

  • First Published: 04 June 2024
Key Points

  • Performances of eight state-of-the-art cloud-free products and their combinations in detecting snow phenology parameters are evaluated

  • Impacts of retrieval algorithm, cloud-gap-filling method, and sensor differences are considered for analyzing products' accuracy differences

  • Proposed scheme combining three high-accuracy products notably enhances snow cover days detection but including less accurate ones degrades