• Issue

    Water Resources Research: Volume 56, Issue 7

    July 2020

Issue Information

Free Access

Issue Information

  • First Published: 28 July 2020

Research Articles

Open Access

How Do Gaining and Losing Streams React to the Combined Effects of Climate Change and Pumping in the Gharehsoo River Basin, Iran?

  • First Published: 18 March 2020
Key Points

  • A promising integrated hydrological modeling approach is proposed to assess the future effects of climate change and groundwater pumping
  • Gaining streams will be more impacted by the climate change scenarios and pumping variants than losing streams
  • Groundwater overutilization turns out to be the major reason for the extreme groundwater storage drawdown in the aquifer of the Gharehsoo River Basin, Iran

Free Access

An Adjoint Sensitivity Model for Transient Sequentially Coupled Radionuclide Transport in Porous Media

  • First Published: 14 April 2020
Key Points

  • An adjoint sensitivity model for transient sequentially coupled radionuclide transport in heterogeneous media is presented
  • Analytical expressions including adjoint state functions and sensitivity coefficients are derived in closed forms for the homogeneous case
  • A derivative-based global sensitivity method coupled with the adjoint approach is presented and applied to a real field case

Free Access

Microfluidic Diagnostics of the Impact of Local Microfracture Connectivity on Hydrocarbon Recovery Following Water Injection

  • First Published: 16 April 2020
Key Points

  • Microfractured systems present three distinct viscous fingering generation mechanisms
  • Capillary number and microfracture connectivity are more impactful in creating a viscous fingering generation mechanism than wettability
  • Although dead-end microfractures adopt unique dendrite generation mechanisms, their impacts on recovery are minimal at water-wet conditions

Open Access

Detecting Flood-Rich and Flood-Poor Periods in Annual Peak Discharges Across Europe

  • First Published: 22 April 2020
Key Points

  • A method from Scan statistics is proposed for identifying flood-rich and flood-poor periods in flood discharge records
  • There is evidence of flood-rich and flood-poor periods based on analyzing 2,201 flood series in Europe between 1960 and 2010
  • In the northwest of Europe, the frequency of flood-rich periods tends to increase over time, particularly for large return periods

Free Access

Explicit Expression of Weighting Factor for Improved Estimation of Numerical Flux in Local Inertial Models

  • First Published: 27 April 2020
Key Points

  • The inertial formulation of the Saint-Venant equations is unstable when applied to low friction areas typical of urban environments
  • Numerical stability is improved using the diffusive term, but calibration is required to obtain an optimal value of the diffusion coefficient
  • This study proposes an explicit expression for the diffusion coefficient, obviating the need for trial and error calibration

Free Access

Impacts of Mixed-Wettability on Brine Drainage and Supercritical CO2 Storage Efficiency in a 2.5-D Heterogeneous Micromodel

  • First Published: 29 April 2020
Key Points

  • We created two mixed-wet systems with varying water- and intermediate-wet patches in a 2.5-D heterogeneous micromodel
  • The uniformly distributed intermediate-wet patches yield bridging flow topology and highest storage efficiency after drainage
  • The heterogeneously distributed intermediate-wet patches enhance channelized CO2 flow and hinder storage efficiency after drainage

Free Access

Effects of Spatial Variability in the Groundwater Isotopic Composition on Hydrograph Separation Results for a Pre-Alpine Headwater Catchment

  • First Published: 04 May 2020
Key Points

  • Baseflow did not reflect the catchment average groundwater composition
  • Uncertainties in hydrograph separation are likely higher than usually reported due to spatial variability in pre-event water
  • Using samples that represent the spatial variability in pre-event water composition yields more robust pre-event water fractions

Free Access

Drought-Induced Soil Desiccation Cracking Behavior With Consideration of Basal Friction and Layer Thickness

  • First Published: 05 May 2020
Key Points

  • Soil desiccation cracking significantly depends on both basal boundary condition and soil layer thickness
  • Desiccation cracks initiate not only at soil top surface but also at bottom, which is strongly associated with the basal roughness level
  • Cracking on top surface is governed by tensile stresses; cracking on bottom surface is governed by coupling of shear and tensile stresses

Open Access

Surface Depression and Wetland Water Storage Improves Major River Basin Hydrologic Predictions

  • First Published: 05 May 2020
Key Points

  • We present the first hydrologic model incorporating surface depression and wetland water storage in one of the world's major river basins
  • Surface depressions, often overlooked in conventional large-scale hydrologic modeling, significantly alter landscape water yields
  • Cumulative hydrologic effects of surface depression storage on downstream waters depend on a combination of local drivers

Free Access

Origin of Groundwater Arsenic in a Rural Pleistocene Aquifer in Bangladesh Depressurized by Distal Municipal Pumping

  • First Published: 06 May 2020
Key Points

  • A clay-capped Pleistocene aquifer under the influence of municipal pumping is contaminated with arsenic (As)
  • After pumping started, breaks in the clay aquitard became conduits for accelerated transport of tritium, As, and carbon from the shallow aquifer
  • Pumping induced transport of reactive carbon or arsenic emanating from the clay aquitard itself could lead to local release of As

Free Access

Improving the Effectiveness of Multiobjective Optimization Design of Urban Drainage Systems

  • First Published: 08 May 2020
Key Points

  • An efficient engineering-based method is proposed to generate initial solutions that account for both pipe diameters and slopes
  • The minimization of variability of peak depths across pipes is effective to handle future uncertainties
  • The proposed method is significantly more efficient and practically meaningful than traditional approaches for UDS design problems

Free Access

Surrogate-Based Joint Estimation of Subsurface Geological and Relative Permeability Parameters for High-Dimensional Inverse Problem by Use of Smooth Local Parameterization

  • First Published: 13 May 2020
Key Points

  • Efficient subdomain linear models with smooth local parameterization are produced as an alternative implementation of forward simulation
  • Only 220 high-fidelity model simulations are required in a high-dimensional inversion problem with 320 uncertain parameters
  • Ensemble collapse problem could be effectively and efficiently mitigated on conditioning a large amount of measurements

Free Access

Evaluation of Methods for Causal Discovery in Hydrometeorological Systems

  • First Published: 16 May 2020
Key Points

  • A brief description of the fundamentals and assumptions of four causal discovery methods is provided
  • The methods performance and their sensitivity to sample length and presence of noise is assessed using synthetic data from a hydrologic model
  • Causal analysis is applied to examine and formulate hypotheses on the significance of environmental drivers of evapotranspiration

Free Access

Mechanisms of Cold Region Hydrologic Change to Recent Wetting in a Northern Glaciated Landscape

  • First Published: 16 May 2020
Key Points

  • A physically-based model is used to investigate mechanisms of hydrologic change to recent wetting in a cold region agricultural basin
  • During recent wetting, the hydrological system transitioned from a moderate ET-controlled to an extreme ET-dominated regime
  • Interannual streamflow variations are due to complex interaction of peak SWE, fall soil moisture, frozen soil conditions, and rain on snow

Open Access

Real-Time Flood Forecasting Based on a High-Performance 2-D Hydrodynamic Model and Numerical Weather Predictions

  • First Published: 17 May 2020
Key Points

  • A high-resolution, real-time flood forecasting system is developed based on a hydrodynamic model and numerical weather forecasts
  • Catchment-scale flood simulation is achieved using a fully 2-D hydrodynamic model accelerated by multiple GPUs
  • The forecasting system is successfully applied to “forecast” an extreme event in a 2,500-km2 domain with a lead time of 34 hr

Open Access

Floodplain Inundation and Salinization From a Recently Restored First-Order Tidal Stream

  • First Published: 20 May 2020
Key Points

  • Freshwater-seawater interactions in a recently restored tidal stream-floodplain system were evaluated with mechanistic modeling
  • Salinity infiltration and water table dynamics in the floodplain were largely driven by quasi-monthly tidal inundation events
  • Floodplain salinity is currently at an early stage of transition from the pre-restoration freshwater conditions

Free Access

Daily Continuous River Discharge Estimation for Ungauged Basins Using a Hydrologic Model Calibrated by Satellite Altimetry: Implications for the SWOT Mission

  • First Published: 20 May 2020
Key Points

  • Jason-2-derived water levels and SWOT-like observations could be used as references for model calibration
  • The calibrated hydrologic model produced daily continuous discharge in ungauged basin
  • Important implications for discharge estimation using SWOT were provided

Free Access

Unified Soil Freezing Characteristic for Variably-Saturated Saline Soils

  • First Published: 20 May 2020
Key Points

  • The curve of unfrozen water content versus temperature agrees with the curve of freezing point versus initial water content
  • The soil freezing characteristic curve of saline soil can be obtained from the freezing point depression caused by salt concentration
  • The soil freezing characteristic curve is independent of initial water content when gravimetric salt content is constant

Free Access

Impacts of Urbanization on Watershed Water Balances Across the Conterminous United States

  • First Published: 21 May 2020
Key Points

  • Future watershed hydrologic impacts of urbanization vary dramatically across the United States
  • Hydrologic responses to urbanization were influenced by local climate, previous land covers, and change in land imperviousness
  • Strategies to minimize impacts of urbanization must consider local climatic and land cover conditions

Free Access

Interannual and Seasonal Variability of Snow Depth Scaling Behavior in a Subalpine Catchment

  • First Published: 22 May 2020
Key Points

  • Consistent short-range fractal behavior and scale breaks in snow depth were detected for six consecutive seasons in a subalpine catchment
  • Scale break anisotropies in shallow snowpacks during melt periods can be explained by bare-earth terrain scaling patterns
  • Variogram analysis can inform statistical and dynamical model decisions to best simulate snow distribution

Free Access

High-Resolution Measurement of Soil Thermal Properties and Moisture Content Using a Novel Heated Fiber Optics Approach

  • First Published: 22 May 2020
Key Points

  • A novel fiber-optic dual-probe heat-pulse technique measures soil thermal properties and moisture content with submeter resolution
  • The novel technique reduces the need to obtain hard-to-find soil-specific calibrations
  • Measured soil heat capacity and moisture content deviated from independent measurements by <0.2 MJ m−3 K−1 and <0.03 m3 m−3, respectively

Free Access

Sensitivity of Streamflow Metrics to Infiltration-Based Stormwater Management Networks

  • First Published: 22 May 2020
Key Points

  • Rain garden networks can alter water balances in an urban watershed, but many flow regime components may not change significantly
  • Flashiness, time above mean flow, and 1-month peak flows can decrease significantly when 40% of directly connected impervious area is treated
  • Calibrating land surface slope in SWAT decreases prediction intervals but does not compensate for lack of explicit pipe model

Free Access

Some Taxes Are Better Than Others: An Economic Experiment Analyzing Groundwater Management in a Spatially Explicit Aquifer

  • First Published: 22 May 2020
Key Points

  • Six aquifer withdrawal taxes result in similar groundwater use but different user earnings and opinions
  • The most effective policy is a groundwater use tax with a threshold and without an upfront side payment
  • Groundwater users prefer an unmanaged aquifer and tax policies with high side-payments irrespective of overall aquifer use efficiency

Free Access

Method of Distributions for Quantification of Geologic Uncertainty in Flow Simulations

  • First Published: 24 May 2020
Key Points

  • Our method combines the random domain decomposition and the method of distributions
  • The method accounts for geologic and parametric uncertainties
  • The method handles high heterogeneity and is orders of magnitude faster than Monte Carlo

Free Access

Multitemporal Relationships Between the Hydroclimate and Exports of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus in a Small Agricultural Watershed

  • First Published: 26 May 2020
Key Points

  • We analysed 16 years of daily hydroclimatic and water chemistry variables in a 5 km2 agricultural watershed
  • Opposite temporal patterns were observed for nitrate and DOC, independent of SRP variations, at interannual, seasonal, and event time scales
  • Agricultural pressures and climate drive long-term trends, while watershed wetness controls shorter-term variations

Free Access

Geologic Controls on Source Water Drive Baseflow Generation and Carbon Geochemistry: Evidence of Nonstationary Baseflow Sources Across Multiple Subwatersheds

  • First Published: 26 May 2020
Key Points

  • Both deep and shallow subsurface flow paths contribute to baseflow during the summer dry down period
  • Differences in contributions of shallow and deep subsurface flow paths to baseflow across subwatersheds are related to local geology
  • Stream water dissolved carbon geochemistry fluctuates in line with shifting sources during the summer dry down period

Open Access

Differential Responses of Maximum Versus Median Chlorophyll-a to Air Temperature and Nutrient Loads in an Oligotrophic Lake Over 31 Years

  • First Published: 28 May 2020
Key Points

  • Simulated annual maximum and summer median lake chlorophyll-a are positively associated with external phosphorus load and air temperature, respectively
  • A 2°C rise in simulated air temperature significantly increased summer median, but not annual maximum, chlorophyll-a
  • Annual maximum chlorophyll-a may be more informative than median summer chlorophyll-a to assess nutrient load effects on water quality

Open Access

An Automatic In Situ Contact Angle Determination Based on Level Set Method

  • First Published: 29 May 2020
Key Points

  • A mathematically well-defined level set-based approach is presented to measure in situ contact angle distribution at pore scale
  • Our novel approach was validated using analytical contact angle and applied successfully in micro-CT-imaged fluid-rock samples
  • Compared with other available automatic approach, our approach doesn't require any tuning procedure to generate smooth surface

Free Access

Numerical Modeling of Instream Wood Transport, Deposition, and Accumulation in Braided Morphologies Under Unsteady Conditions: Sensitivity and High-Resolution Quantitative Model Validation

  • First Published: 31 May 2020
Key Points

  • The enhanced version of the model Iber-Wood better reproduces dragging wood transport of pieces with and without roots
  • Detailed numerical simulation of the flow field allowed for the evaluation of location of wood deposition, and how the latter changes with discharge
  • Numerical simulation of unsteady flow conditions showed different wood dynamics during the rising and falling limbs of floods

Free Access

In-Home Tap Water Consumption Trends Changed Among U.S. Children, but Not Adults, Between 2007 and 2016

  • First Published: 04 June 2020
Key Points

  • In-home tap water avoidance was decreasing among U.S. children from 2007–2014, until the Flint water crisis, when tap avoidance increased
  • Minority and low socioeconomic status children and adults consistently reported not drinking tap water at higher rates over time
  • Children who avoided tap water were more likely to drink bottled water; not drinking tap water may capture aspects of U.S. water insecurity

Free Access

Lake Topography and Active Storage From Satellite Observations of Flood Frequency

  • First Published: 04 June 2020
Key Points

  • New method for estimating nearshore topography and active storage in inland water bodies
  • Flood2Topo app converts water levels and Landsat-based flood frequency into water body bottom topography
  • Accurate representation of spatial patterns with 0.18 to 1.4 m errors on lake bottom level and <11% error for reservoir active storage

Free Access

Mixing Ratios With Age: Application to Preasymptotic One-Dimensional Equilibrium Bimolecular Reactive Transport in Porous Media

  • First Published: 04 June 2020
Key Points

  • Governing equations and solutions are obtained for mixing ratios structured on age
  • Dispersion is structured on age as a novel approach to model preasymptotic and asymptotic transport
  • Solutions for 1-D bimolecular fast reactive transport are derived and applied to both preasymptotic and asymptotic reactive transport

Open Access

Joint Optimization of Measurement and Modeling Strategies With Application to Radial Flow in Stratified Aquifers

  • First Published: 05 June 2020
Key Points

  • The best choice of model complexity and data collection depends on the modeling goals and on each other
  • We propose a joint optimization concept for model complexity and data collection campaigns mimicking best fit calibration
  • We apply the approach to identify hydraulic conductivity in a stratified aquifer by pumping tests with partially penetrating wells

Free Access

Estimation of Daily Rainfall Extremes Through the Metastatistical Extreme Value Distribution: Uncertainty Minimization and Implications for Trend Detection

  • First Published: 05 June 2020
Key Points

  • We identify the optimal formulation of the Metastatistical Extreme Value Distribution applying it to daily rainfall
  • Interannual variability should be resolved to better define the probability distribution of daily rainfall extremes
  • The MEVD provides clear advantages over traditional extreme value theory in trend detection

Free Access

Compound Effects of Flood Drivers and Wetland Elevation Correction on Coastal Flood Hazard Assessment

  • First Published: 07 June 2020
Key Points

  • Compound flooding assessment can benefit from statistical methods and physically based modeling including correction of elevation data
  • Coincidence likelihood of hazard drivers and elevation error may dominate the overall uncertainty of maximum floodwater height and velocity
  • Wetland elevation correction in digital elevation models can help improve the overall accuracy of coastal flood hazard maps

Free Access

The Role of Subsurface Flow on Evapotranspiration: A Global Sensitivity Analysis

  • First Published: 07 June 2020
Key Points

  • A global sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the connectivity between land surface and subsurface processes
  • Evapotranspiration is mainly controlled by the effects of vadose zone parameters while transpiration shows sensitivity to saturated zone parameters
  • Deeper water tables show a disconnection between land and subsurface, although not an insensitivity to hydrodynamic parameters

Free Access

Multisite Weather Generators Using Bayesian Networks: An Illustrative Case Study for Precipitation Occurrence

  • First Published: 08 June 2020
Key Points

  • Bayesian networks are introduced as a novel machine learning methodology for multisite precipitation occurrence generation
  • Their performance is assessed using several measures in terms of spatial and temporal coherence
  • The proposed methodology shows promise, with improvement on several spatiotemporal aspects against existing models

Free Access

Contributions of Pore-Scale Mixing and Mechanical Dispersion to Reaction During Active Spreading by Radial Groundwater Flow

  • First Published: 13 May 2020
Key Points

  • Pore-scale diffusion and mechanical dispersion promote reaction
  • Contribution of dispersion to reaction increases with time and with Peclet number
  • Contribution of dispersion to reaction increases with mass transfer rate into mixed compartment

Free Access

Flow Recession Equations for Karst Systems

  • First Published: 08 June 2020
Key Points

  • Flow recession equations that highlight the dual flow characteristics of karst systems are presented
  • Approximate equations for determining the hydraulic parameters of a karst aquifer are derived
  • The flow recession equations were successfully applied on three real karst aquifer systems

Open Access

River Plume Liftoff Dynamics and Surface Expressions

  • First Published: 10 June 2020
Key Points

  • River discharge generates a ridge on the water surface at the liftoff location that may be remotely detectable
  • Liftoff location and ridge height are predicted by equations in terms of discharge, shelf slope, and river mouth aspect ratio
  • Remote measurements of the location or height of the ridge could be used to estimate discharge

Free Access

A Modified Time Domain Random Walk Approach for Simulating Colloid Behavior in Fractures: Method Development and Verification

  • First Published: 11 June 2020
Key Points

  • A modified time domain random walk (MTDRW) approach was developed to model colloid transport in fractures
  • This MTDRW approach can model colloid-specific transport and retention mechanisms at the single-fracture and fracture-network scales
  • The chemical and physical heterogeneity within the aquifer can be captured using the developed approach

Free Access

Land Use Effects on Sediment Nutrient Processes in a Heavily Modified Watershed Using Structural Equation Models

  • First Published: 11 June 2020
Key Points

  • Structural equation modeling of the Fox River Basin illustrates direct land use effects on river channel sediment nutrient dynamics
  • Agricultural best management practices that restore natural land cover have a small differential effect on sediment nutrient dynamics
  • Future scenarios modeling suggests current land management actions have a minimal effect on sediment nutrient dynamics

Free Access

Anomaly Kriging Helps to Remove Bias in Spatial Model Runoff Estimates

  • First Published: 12 June 2020
Key Points

  • We developed a method to reduce spatially variable bias in modeled runoff at the continental scale
  • The two-step regression and kriging scheme removed an average 41% of bias in cross validation
  • Corrections were applied to continuous daily fields of runoff at a 0.05 × 0.05° grid across Australia

Free Access

Groundwater Storage Loss Associated With Land Subsidence in Western United States Mapped Using Machine Learning

  • First Published: 05 June 2020
Key Points

  • Remote sensing and geological data sets are integrated to estimate land subsidence due to groundwater extraction
  • The estimates are integrated using a machine learning method called random forests
  • Using this method we estimate that from 2015 to 2016, ~2.0 km3/yr of groundwater storage was lost due to land subsidence in the western United States

Free Access

Ensemble Projection of Runoff in a Large-Scale Basin: Modeling With a Global BMA Approach

  • First Published: 29 May 2020
Key Points

  • An ensemble projection framework was established to significantly improve the reliability of runoff in the future
  • The global BMA algorithm is proposed to obtain comprehensive BMA weights by considering number of stations in a basin
  • The runoff of the Yellow River Basin in 2050 and 2070 will decrease by 9% and 7%, respectively

Free Access

An Analytical Solution of Groundwater Flow in a Confined Aquifer With a Single-Well Circulation System

  • First Published: 12 June 2020
Key Points

  • A general mathematical model describing groundwater flow in a confined aquifer for a single-well circulation system is developed
  • An analytical solution for drawdown in the Laplace domain and the steady-state analytical solution in the time domain are obtained
  • The characteristics of groundwater flow and the effects of different parameters on drawdown are investigated

Open Access

Bayesian Calibration and Validation of a Large-Scale and Time-Demanding Sediment Transport Model

  • First Published: 15 June 2020
Key Points

  • We reduce a time-demanding sediment transport model with a surrogate technique based on the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion (aPC)
  • Bayesian model calibration and validation in a fraction of computational time compared to conventional (manual, deterministic) methods
  • We achieve a more realistic calibration, a more successful validation, and valuable information in the form of uncertainty intervals

Free Access

The Contributions of the Largest Erosive Events to Sediment Yields in Karst Catchments

  • First Published: 17 June 2020
Key Points

  • Annual sediment yields were controlled by few erosive events
  • The largest daily precipitation events did not coincide with the largest sediment load
  • The contributions of the n-largest events to annual sediment yield were scale dependent

Free Access

Numerical Insights Into the Effects of Model Geometric Distortion in Laboratory Experiments of Urban Flooding

  • First Published: 18 June 2020
Key Points

  • The bias induced by model geometric distortion on water depths and discharge partition does not exceed 10% in the tested configurations
  • A nonmonotonous pattern of flow variables is found when varying distortion ratio, reflecting variations in frictional and local head losses
  • The findings of the study provide guidance for the design and sizing of geometrically distorted laboratory models of urban flooding

Free Access

ETo-Brazil: A Daily Gridded Reference Evapotranspiration Data Set for Brazil (2000–2018)

  • First Published: 19 June 2020
Key Points

  • Daily reference evapotranspiration is modeled daily using machine learning and based on remote sensing and climate data sets
  • The importance of the variables for the models is assessed for all daily models
  • The developed data set covers the same period and matches the resolution and positioning of the Global Precipitation Measurement data

Free Access

Three-Dimensional Flow Structures and Morphodynamic Evolution of Microtidal Meandering Channels

  • First Published: 20 June 2020
Key Points

  • Acoustic measurements of 3D flow structures in tidal meanders highlight pronounced asymmetries in the ebb and flood velocities
  • Flow separation in sharp bends, controlled by the radius-width ratio, can lead to unidirectional flow in some parts of the bar deposits
  • Aquatic vegetation can influence the evolution of tidal meanders by disrupting and limiting the transfer of curvature-induced helical flow

Commentaries

Free Access

What Ecohydrologic Separation Is and Where We Can Go With It

  • First Published: 20 June 2020
Key Points

  • Isotope ratios of plant water should differ from water flowing in soils to streams, and so we need to move beyond confirming this difference
  • To move beyond identifying ecohydrologic separation toward understanding it, we provide a framework for assessing soil-water flow processes
  • By focusing on dynamics of how water infiltrates into the subsurface and becomes available to plants, we can better interpret past findings

Research Articles

Free Access

Analytical Solution of Suspended Sediment Concentration Profile: Relevance of Dispersive Flow Term in Vegetated Channels

  • First Published: 22 June 2020
Key Points

  • A dispersive model is proposed to investigate the sediment transport in the vegetated open channels with parameters fitted with experiments
  • Analytical solution of the vertical suspended sediment concentration profile is derived for submerged and emergent vegetated open channels
  • The effects of dispersion on suspended sediment concentration in the vegetated channels is demonstrated by the double-averaging method

Free Access

The Roles of Climate Forcing and Its Variability on Streamflow at Daily, Monthly, Annual, and Long-Term Scales

  • First Published: 22 June 2020
Key Points

  • Streamflow variations at the daily, monthly, and annual timescales are primarily affected by climate variability at the same timescale
  • For mean annual streamflow, intra-annual variability is the most important climate variability, followed by inter-annual variability
  • Intra-annual climate variability has significant effects on streamflow at all the timescales

Free Access

Assessing the Steady-State Assumption in Water Balance Calculation Across Global Catchments

  • First Published: 29 June 2020
Key Points

  • The steady-state assumption in water balance calculation and associated errors across global catchments are assessed
  • Arid/semiarid catchments require a longer time to reach an approximate steady state than humid/subhumid catchments
  • Imbalance caused by ignoring storage change accounts for 7% (3%) of precipitation in arid (humid) catchments for a typical 10-year period

Technical Reports: Methods

Free Access

Deep Learning for an Improved Prediction of Rainfall Retrievals From Commercial Microwave Links

  • First Published: 31 May 2020
Key Points

  • A novel approach is proposed to estimate rainfall from only maximum and minimum attenuation data from microwave links using a deep learning
  • The RNN model trained and tested using disdrometer data outperformed existing rainfall estimation methods from microwave link attenuation
  • This disdrometer-trained model also outperformed rainfall estimation methods when applied to Commercial Microwave Link data

Open Access

A Novel Instrument for Bed Dynamics Observation Supports Machine Learning Applications in Mangrove Biogeomorphic Processes

  • First Published: 14 June 2020
Key Points

  • A novel automatic instrument is developed for high-frequency intertidal bed level dynamics observation
  • Data transmission function enables building automatic bed level observation networks to support coastal research and management
  • Machine learning applications reveal that the presence of vegetation plays a key role in mangrove biogeomorphic processes