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Ocean Coupling Limits Rupture Velocity of Fastest Observed Ice Shelf Rift Propagation Event

  •  5 February 2024

Key Points

  • We observe rift propagation at 35.1 m/s, suggesting that rifting presents a mechanism of rapid ice shelf change or collapse

  • Rift fracture mechanics and fluid flow in the subshelf cavity act in concert to control the precise speed of rift propagation

  • Rapid rifting induces mixing in the subshelf cavity comparable in magnitude to mixing induced by calving from marine terminating glaciers

Open access

The Problem of Tree Senescence in the Role of Elevated CO2 and the Carbon Cycle

  •  2 February 2024
No abstract is available for this article.
Open access

Balancing Non-CO2 GHG Emissions and Soil Carbon Change in U.S. Rice Paddies: A Retrospective Meta-Analysis and Agricultural Modeling Study

  •  1 February 2024

Key Points

  • U.S. rice paddy was a rapidly growing net GHG emission source (8.88 ± 2.65 Tg CO2eq yr−1 in the 2010s) over the last six decades

  • SOC sequestration could offset about 14.0% (1.45 ± 0.46 Tg CO2eq yr−1) of soil non-CO2 GHG emissions in the 2010s

  • Non-continuous irrigation exhibited the potential to mitigate around 39% of soil non-CO2 GHG emissions than continuous irrigation

Open access

Laboratory Hydrofractures as Analogs to Tectonic Tremors

  •  29 January 2024

Key Points

  • A new hydrofracturing experiment simulates tectonic tremors and aseismic slips by visualizing and listening to stick-break instabilities

  • Both laboratory and tectonic tremors behave with bursty or intermittent slow propagation and radiate energy that scales with rupture area

  • Our experiments suggest tectonic tremors are manifestations of hydraulic fracturing that contributes to induced slow earthquakes

Open access

“Seeing” Beneath the Clouds—Machine‐Learning‐Based Reconstruction of North African Dust Plumes

  •  29 January 2024

Key Points

  • We present the first fast reconstruction of cloud-obscured Saharan dust plumes through novel machine learning applied to satellite images

  • The reconstruction algorithm utilizes partial convolutions to restore cloud-induced gaps in gray-scaled Meteosat Second Generation-Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager Dust RGB images

  • World Meteorological Organization dust forecasts for North Africa mostly agree with the satellite-based reconstruction of the dust plume extent

Open access

Biomass Storage in Anoxic Marine Basins: Initial Estimates of Geochemical Impacts and CO2 Sequestration Capacity

  •  13 January 2024

Key Points

  • Organic carbon sequestration may be relatively efficient in parts of the ocean without O2, although its durability depends on local circulation

  • The Black Sea may have the potential to durably sequester climatically relevant quantities of organic carbon

  • Research is urgently needed to better understand potential biomass degradation rates and the mixing and transport of degradation products

Open access

More Than Marine Heatwaves: A New Regime of Heat, Acidity, and Low Oxygen Compound Extreme Events in the Gulf of Alaska

  •  12 January 2024

Key Points

  • 20% of the shelf bottom water was exposed to quadruple heat, positive [H+], negative Ωarag, and negative [O2] compound extreme events in 2019

  • Interaction of marine heat waves and local natural variability of deep-water intrusion triggered quadruple compound extreme events on shelf

  • New Gulf of Alaska Downwelling Index presented as indicator for environmental conditions on continental shelf

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Issue Information

  •  4 January 2024
Open access

Systematic Underestimation of Canopy Conductance Sensitivity to Drought by Earth System Models

  •  4 January 2024

Key Points

  • Earth System Models (ESMs) underestimate the sensitivity of canopy conductance to changes in moisture availability

  • The underestimation is greatest in semi-arid and bordering regions with temperatures between 5 and 25°C and leaf area index over 1

  • This misrepresentation leads to errors in ESM projections of carbon, water, and energy fluxes during drought

Open access

Multi‐Layer Evolution of Acoustic‐Gravity Waves and Ionospheric Disturbances Over the United States After the 2022 Hunga Tonga Volcano Eruption

  •  21 December 2023

Key Points

  • The atmosphere and ionosphere exhibited propagating acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) and traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) over CONUS that accompanied the arrivals of Lamb wave modes

  • Independent confirmations of packets of AGWs and TIDs are consistent with at least 4 sets of eruption-related events

  • The importance of atmospheric state and winds on Lamb wave mode propagation is demonstrated with ray-tracing modeling results

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Carbon‐Neutral Pathways for the United States

  •  14 January 2021

Key Points

  • The United States can reach zero net CO2 emissions from energy and industry in 2050 at a net cost of 0.2–1.2% of GDP, not counting climate benefits
  • Multiple feasible pathways exist, all based on energy efficiency, clean electricity, electrification, and carbon capture for use or storage
  • Least-cost electricity systems obtain >80% of their energy from wind and solar, with existing types of thermal generation for reliability

Open access

External Forcing Explains Recent Decadal Variability of the Ocean Carbon Sink

  •  3 June 2020

Key Points

  • The reduced ocean carbon sink in the decade of the 1990s can be explained by the slowed growth rate of atmospheric CO2
  • The global sea surface temperature response to Mt Pinatubo in 1991 explains the intra-decadal pattern of the ocean carbon sink in the 1990s
  • There will be an immediate reduction in ocean carbon uptake as atmospheric pCO2 responds to cuts in anthropogenic CO2 emissions

Open access

Coastal Wetland Resilience, Accelerated Sea‐Level Rise, and the Importance of Timescale

  •  25 March 2021

Key Points

  • The paleo-record shows lower thresholds for submergence of marshes and mangroves than the instrumental record

  • Accelerated relative sea-level rise will nearly always lead to a reduction in the extent of coastal wetlands

  • Integration of new field and remote sensing data with constraints from the paleo-record will enable advances in coastal wetland modeling

Open access

Substantial Cloud Brightening From Shipping in Subtropical Low Clouds

  •  24 March 2020

Key Points

  • For the first time, observations show that ship emissions induce a cloud brightening effect on climate-relevant spatial and temporal scales
  • Brightening is dominated by an increase in the number of cloud droplets, with small or countervailing adjustments in liquid water path
  • Observationally informed global effective radiative forcing in low clouds is calculated as −1.0 W/m2 (−1.6 to −0.4 W/m2)

Open access

Rapid Net Carbon Loss From a Whole‐Ecosystem Warmed Peatland

  •  27 July 2020

Key Points

  • We used in situ whole-ecosystem manipulations to evaluate peatland carbon cycle changes to a range of warming conditions and elevated CO2
  • Warming caused variable responses for vegetation and losses of CO2 and CH4 for a linear response of 31.3 g C·m−2·year−1·°C−1
  • Models are capable of capturing C cycle responses to temperature under ambient CO2 conditions but overpredict sensitivity to elevated CO2

Open access

Land‐Atmosphere Interactions Exacerbated the Drought and Heatwave Over Northern Europe During Summer 2018

  •  15 April 2021

Key Points

  • Unprecedented dry soil contributed to the 2018 European heatwave and drought by altering surface fluxes, heating, and drying the atmosphere

  • Threshold values of soil water content are found below which air temperature becomes much more sensitive to increased drying

  • Field observations corroborate reanalysis depictions of heatwave sensitivity, suggesting land feedbacks amplified heat over much of Europe

Open access

Recent Amplified Global Gross Primary Productivity Due to Temperature Increase Is Offset by Reduced Productivity Due to Water Constraints

  •  17 December 2020

Key Points

  • We used a new dynamic LUE model to estimate global GPP for 1982–2016
  • Increasing GPP in northern high latitudes is offset by GPP decline in the tropics
  • Global GPP is shifting from being temperature limited to VPD limited

Open access

The Transient and Intermittent Nature of Slow Slip

  •  3 March 2020

Key Points

  • Slow slip happens at all spatial and temporal scales
  • Slow slip is an intrinsically intermittent and clustered process
  • There is no observational evidence for different physical mechanisms for slow slip in different tectonic contexts

Open access

The Key Role of Production Efficiency Changes in Livestock Methane Emission Mitigation

  •  26 May 2021

Key Points

  • Emission intensity decreased for most livestock categories globally during 2000–2018, with an increasing protein-production efficiency

  • The continuation of the past decreases in emission intensity provides a large potential to mitigate livestock emissions

  • Improving production efficiency has a much greater mitigating effect than demand-side efforts, and should be prioritized in a few countries

Open access

Sea‐Ice Induced Southern Ocean Subsurface Warming and Surface Cooling in a Warming Climate

  •  6 May 2020

Key Points

  • Sea-ice changes explain most of the Southern Ocean surface cooling and freshening south of the Subantarctic Front between 1982 and 2011
  • The related strengthened surface stratification led to a subsurface warming around West Antarctica, potentially affecting ice-shelf melt
  • The subsurface warming contributed to the slowdown of global warming by increasing the global ocean heat content (8%) over this period

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