Table of Contents

Free Access

Quality assessment of spaceborne sea surface salinity observations over the northern North Atlantic

Key Points:

  • Satellite SSS fields show realistic spatial SSS distribution
  • SST-dependent bias in the SMOS retrieval
  • Differences to observations can partially be attributed to frontal processes

Free Access

SMOS Sea Surface Salinity signals of tropical instability waves

Key Points

  • SMOS provides a successful opportunity to observe SSS signals of TIWs from space
  • The westward propagations of SSS and SST signals appeared seasonally
  • Westward propagation speed of SMOS SSS signals ranges between 0.6 and 1.5 m/s

Free Access

Impact of assimilating surface salinity from SMOS on ocean circulation estimates

Key Points

  • A SMOS salinity error is required as input for assimilation is estimated
  • SMOS data can be reproduced by the model if the error is artificially reduced
  • Correspondence of the freshwater fluxes to the estimate from HOAPS is enhanced

Open Access

The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Numerical simulations

Key Points

  • Cross-shelf exchanges in the SW Atlantic are characterized by SSS anomalies
  • Cross-shelf exchanges are partially controlled by local winds
  • Seasonal variations of the cross-shelf exchanges are small

Free Access

Comparison of spaceborne measurements of sea surface salinity and colored detrital matter in the Amazon plume

Key Points:

  • First time mapping of ocean color/SSS at high spatiotemporal resolution
  • In situ/satellite comparisons of the conservative mixing relationship
  • Improved method to reconstruct SSS field back in time

Free Access

Assimilating SMOS sea ice thickness into a coupled ice-ocean model using a local SEIK filter

Key Points

  • SMOS ice thickness data have been first assimilated using a local SEIK filter
  • SMOS ice thickness assimilation leads to substantially improved thickness

Free Access

The influence of salinity on tropical Atlantic instability waves

Key Points:

  • Demonstrates Aquarius satellite's capability to detect Atlantic TIWs
  • Characterizes salinity effects on the spatial structure of Atlantic TIWs
  • Reveals salinity effect on seasonal variability of Atlantic TIWs

Free Access

Comparison analysis between Aquarius sea surface salinity and World Ocean Database in situ analyzed sea surface salinity

Key Points:

  • Aquarius compares very well with in situ sea surface salinity (SSS) under multiple comparison tests
  • Usage of CAP algorithm reduces Aquarius' zonal biases
  • Utilizing non-Argo data helps improve validation of satellite SSS

Free Access

Analyzing the 2010–2011 La Niña signature in the tropical Pacific sea surface salinity using in situ data, SMOS observations, and a numerical simulation

Key Points

  • The well-marked signature of the 2010–2011 La Nina is described and analyzed
  • In situ, modeled and SMOS surface salinity products show good overall agreement
  • The processes for the western Pacific strong tripolar anomaly shift are studied

Free Access

Active-passive synergy for interpreting ocean L-band emissivity: Results from the CAROLS airborne campaigns

Key Points

  • Confirm new L-band radiometric roughness models improvement
  • H-pol Tb double dependence on both wind speed and filtered mss
  • Wind azimuth influence on CAROLS Ta lower than 0.2 K (wind speed >12 m/s)

Free Access

Evaluation of sea-surface salinity observed by Aquarius

Key Points

  • Sea-surface salinity (SSS) observed by Aquarius was evaluated using in situ data
  • SSS retrieved by three different algorithms were compared with each other
  • Error structure of the retrieved SSS was characterized by residual analyses

Free Access

Sea surface salinity variability in the East China Sea observed by the Aquarius instrument

Key Points

  • The Aquarius monitors the ECS salinity variations with the open ocean precision
  • RFI very weakly affects the retrieval of salinity variability during the study period
  • The river discharge rate dominantly controls with the Aquarius salinity

Free Access

An in situ-satellite blended analysis of global sea surface salinity

Key Points

  • A technique developed to produce in situ satellite blended SSS analysis
  • Blended SSS analysis (BASS) constructed for 2010–2012
  • SSS anomaly showed coherent variations with E-P

Free Access

Spatial and temporal scales of sea surface salinity variability in the Atlantic Ocean

Key Points:

  • Relevance of surface salinity annual cycle studied with in situ and model data
  • Spatial and temporal scales vary regionally influenced by annual cycle
  • Eddy-resolving simulation additionally shows strong variability below 30 days

Free Access

A curious local surface salinity maximum in the northwestern tropical Atlantic

Key Points

  • In JFM, a local SSS maximum develops in the northwestern tropical Atlantic at 8N
  • New SSS maximum is revealed in satellite data and is confirmed by in situ data
  • It results from differing annual phases in Amazon discharge and advection

Free Access

Aquarius sea surface salinity in the South Indian Ocean: Revealing annual-period planetary waves

Key Points

  • Aquarius data are highly correlated with those of Argo and RAMA buoys
  • SSS propagation pattern can be interpreted as a superposition of wave modes
  • Annual SSS propagations are strikingly different from SSHA waves

Free Access

Investigation of rain effects on Aquarius Sea Surface Salinity measurements

Key Points

  • Near surface salinity stratification and its impact on AQ measurements
  • Macro-scale Rain Impact Model (RIM) over the ITCZ for AQ sea surface salinity
  • Rain Accumulation Product over the AQ IFOV useful for researchers

Free Access

SMOS salinity in the subtropical North Atlantic salinity maximum: 2. Two-dimensional horizontal thermohaline variability

Key Points:

  • Observation of mesoscale thermohaline variability with SMOS
  • Thermohaline compensation at mesoscale in the NE Atlantic subtropics
  • Azores front well observed all over years with SMOS SSS

Free Access

Uncertainty of Aquarius sea surface salinity retrieved under rainy conditions and its implication on the water cycle study

Key Points

  • Uncertainty of Aquarius SSS retrieved under rain conditions is assessed
  • Implication on water cycle estimated through mixed-layer salt storage tendency

Free Access

Freshening in the South China Sea during 2012 revealed by Aquarius and in situ data

Key Points:

  • An evaluation of Aquarius data indicates that there exists a negative bias
  • The Aquarius SSS shows a reliable freshening in 2012, as do the in situ
  • Freshening is caused by a combined effect of freshwater and Kuroshio intrusion