Tethyan Dynamics: From Rifting to Collision

31 August 2019
20 February 2024

Table of Contents

Open Access

Detachment Fault-Hosted Subduction Re-Initiation of the (Ultra)Slow-Spreading Western Neo-Tethys in the Jurassic

Key Points

  • The Neo-Tethyan Refahiye ophiolite in northern Turkey formed at an (ultra)slow-spreading ocean basin, probably at mid-ocean ridges

  • Detachment fault is a key candidate for the Jurassic subduction re-initiation of the western Neo-Tethys Ocean

  • The utility and diversity of detachment fault-hosted subduction re-initiation is discussed for the origin of Neo-Tethyan ophiolites

Open Access

The Geodynamic Implications of Passive Margin Subduction in Northwest Turkey

Key Points

  • We leveraged the isotopic signature of subducted passive margin to test incipient collision models in northwest Turkey

  • Passive margin subduction resulted in the development of an isolated intra-oceanic basin

  • Two north dipping subduction zones facilitated incipient collision in the region

Free Access

Back-Arc Dynamics Controlled by Slab Rollback and Tearing: A Reappraisal of Seafloor Spreading and Kinematic Evolution of the Eastern Algero-Balearic Basin (Western Mediterranean) in the Middle-Late Miocene

Key Points

  • New seismo-stratigraphic interpretation of the pre-Messinian units and analysis of a reduced-to-the-pole magnetic anomaly pattern of the Eastern Algero-Balearic basin

  • Reassessment of previous kinematic reconstructions of the Algero-Balearic basin evidencing the oceanic ridge migration during the Middle-Late Miocene

  • The combination of the Tethyan slab rollback and slab tearing explains the fast rotation, translation, and fragmentation of the Greater Alboran block after the collision of the Kabylies

Open Access

Impact of Decelerating India-Asia Convergence on the Crustal Flow Kinematics in Tibet: An Insight From Scaled Laboratory Modeling

Key Points

  • Unsteady kinematics of the India-Asia collision is a critical factor for the transition from N-S contraction to E-W extension in Tibet

  • The strong Tarim basin produced a topographic slope in Tibet, which directed the eastward gravity flow at the time of slow convergence

  • The eastward flow shows Poiseuille behavior, determining the sinistral and dextral shear in northern and southern Tibet, respectively

Open Access

Geochemical and Isotopic Evolution of Late Oligocene Magmatism in Quchan, NE Iran

Key Points

  • Bimodal volcanic rocks formed at ∼24 Ma in Quchan, NE Iran after the collision between Arabia and Eurasia at ∼27 Ma

  • Quchan magmas derive from a depleted to an enriched mantle, with significant contamination by the Cadomian continental crust of Iran

  • Major- and trace-element data show that the Quchan adakite-like rocks have undergone extreme amphibole fractionation in crustal hot zones

Open Access

Mantle Flow Patterns Beneath the Junction of Multiple Subduction Systems Between the Pacific and Tethys Domains, SE Asia: Constraints From SKS-Wave Splitting Measurements

Key Points

  • Seismic anisotropy in the multiple subduction zones around the Celebes Sea is characterized by SKS splitting analyses

  • The Sangihe slab edges likely deflect the surrounding flow

  • A large mantle wedge flow induced by the subduction of the Sangihe slab broadly influences the regional upper mantle dynamics

Free Access

Detrital Zircon U-Pb Age Distribution and Hf Isotopic Constraints From the Terrigenous Sediments of the Song Chay Suture Zone (NE Vietnam) and Their Paleogeographic Implications on the Eastern Paleo-Tethys Evolution

Key Points

  • The main provenance of the Song Chay mélange is the South China Block (SCB), rather than Indochina Block (IB)

  • A two-stage subduction model of the convergence between SCB and IB during Late Carboniferous-Late Triassic has been proposed

  • In an ophiolitic mélange, the detrital material does not always come from the overriding plate

Free Access

Detrital Zircon Age Constraints on the Evolution of Paleo-Tethys in NE Iran: Implications for Subduction and Collision Tectonics

Key Points

  • Continuous Paleozoic arc magmatism developed in the South Turan Block, with intermittent peaks

  • The onset of Central Iran-Eurasia collision was no younger than 228 Ma, ending the passive margin sedimentation of Paleozoic

  • Closure of Paleo-Tethys was coincident with the Carnian Pluvial Event, and may have been a causal factor

Open Access

The Role of Subduction Interface and Upper Plate Strength on Back-Arc Extension: Application to Mediterranean Back-Arc Basins

Key Points

  • Subduction interface strength has important role in back-arc stress state

  • Back-arc extension in 2D is facilitated by weak overriding plate rheology

  • The subduction of narrow oceanic domains can generate enough slab-pull to create back-arc breakup

Free Access

Slab Folding and Surface Deformation of the Iran Mobile Belt

Key Points

  • The upper plate of the Neotethys subduction system has been deformed by alternating episodes of compression and extension since the Cretaceous

  • The alternating episodes of deformation are due to the episodes of advancing and retreating trench

  • Numerical models simulate the episode of trench migration and upper-plate deformation by slab folding in the mantle transition zone

Free Access

Reply to Comment by Zhao et al. on “Paleomagnetism of the Late Cretaceous Red Beds From the Far Western Lhasa Terrane: Inclination Discrepancy and Tectonic Implications”

Key Points

  • Characteristic remanent magnetization directions observed from the Jingzhushan Formation red beds represent primary magnetization

  • Paleomagnetic data obtained from two limbs of the folded Jingzhushan Formation red beds are reliable for paleogeographic reconstructions

  • Syntectonic sedimentation is a reasonable interpretation for the inclination discrepancy of the Jingzhushan Formation red beds

Free Access

Eocene Metamorphism and Anatexis in the Kathmandu Klippe, Central Nepal: Implications for Early Crustal Thickening and Initial Rise of the Himalaya

Key Points

  • Eocene prograde metamorphism (44-38 Ma) and anatexis (38-35 Ma, 730°C–760°C, and 10.5 kbar) was first outlined from the Kathmandu klippe

  • The Himalayan architecture was consistent in Eocene but heterogeneous afterwards due to Miocene overprinting

  • Anatexis driven by crustal thickening started 10–20 Myr after initial India-Asia collision, and caused the initial rise of the Himalaya

Free Access

Subduction-Induced Back-Arc Extension Versus Far-Field Stretching: Contrasting Modes for Continental Marginal Break-Up

Key Points

  • The existence and relative weakness of the relic suture zones control subduction-induced continental marginal break-up

  • Far-field stretching is easier than back-arc extension for spatially long and wide subducting slabs

  • The break-up of Cimmeria from Gondwana was likely driven by the drag from the northward Paleo-Tethys oceanic subduction

Free Access

Tectonic Controls on Block Rotation and Sheeted Sill Emplacement in the Xigaze Ophiolite (Tibet): The Construction Mode of Slow-Spreading and Ultraslow-Spreading Oceanic Crusts

Key Points

  • The Xigaze ophiolite develops the peculiar sheeted sill complex, which is geometrically different from sheeted dike complex

  • Generation of sheeted sills is controlled by block exhumation, rotation, and foundering, which are associated with detachment faults

  • Construction of slower-spreading oceanic crusts is quite complex, and directly controlled by the evolution of detachment faults

Open Access

Cenozoic Evolution of the Sulu Sea Arc-Basin System: An Overview

  • First Published: 25 December 2020
Key Points

  • Age and geochemical data compilation for the circum-Sulu Sea region summarized 7 Cenozoic (Mid Eocene to Pleistocene) magmatic phases

  • After Palawan Continental Terrane accretion, Sulu Sea back-arc basin was opened by Celebes Sea subduction (∼21 Ma) and rollback (17-9 Ma)

  • Northern Borneo underwent intraplate extension and magmatism after ∼9 Ma, and the Sulu Sea subducted along Sulu-Negros trench from ∼4 Ma

Free Access

Early Carboniferous Back-Arc Rifting-Related Magmatism in Southern Tibet: Implications for the History of the Lhasa Terrane Separation From Gondwana

Key Points

  • The Lhasa terrane records early Carboniferous back-arc rifting-related magmatism
  • The initial rifting of the Lhasa terrane from Gondwana began in the early Carboniferous
  • The Lhasa terrane contains two subterranes separated from Gondwana at different times

Free Access

Crustal Structure of the Mesopotamian Plain, East of Iraq

Key Points

  • We found an abnormal crustal root in SE of the Mesopotamian Plain using receiver function analysis for 12 new seismic stations in Iraq
  • The crustal root is a structure inherited from the Mesozoic rifting of the NE Arabian platform during Triassic and Middle to Late Jurassic
  • Low-velocity uppermost mantle beneath the Mesopotamian Plain allowed local sinking of the crust and deepening of the Moho boundary

Free Access

Tectonic Evolution and Paleoposition of the Baoshan and Lincang Blocks of West Yunnan During the Paleozoic

  • First Published: 14 September 2020
Key Points

  • The Lincang Block was attached to the Baoshan Block during the Early Paleozoic but an ocean basin developed between them since the Devonian
  • The Lincang Block was linked to the Lhasa Block, and they were located to the northern margin of Australia together before the Early Permian
  • The southern continuation of the Lincang Block is the Inthanon zone rather than the Sukhothai zone in Thailand

Free Access

Jurassic to Cenozoic Magmatic and Geodynamic Evolution of the Eastern Pontides and Caucasus Belts, and Their Relationship With the Eastern Black Sea Basin Opening

  • First Published: 16 September 2020
Key Points

  • Early Jurassic-early Cenozoic subduction/collision-related magmatic arc emplacement is due to a single north dipping subduction
  • Early Cretaceous roll-back and Eastern Black Sea opening caused gradual separation of a remnant arc from the active supra-subduction zone
  • Jurassic arc-related magmatic of the Greater Caucasus belong to the arc of the north dipping subduction below the Southern Eurasian margin

Free Access

Mesozoic Subduction Accretion History in Central Tibet Constrained From Provenance Analysis of the Mugagangri Subduction Complex in the Bangong-Nujiang Suture Zone

Key Points

  • The Mugagangri Complex includes subduction complex rocks with three groups of sandstone of distinct provenance
  • The sandstones are interpreted to have been deposited and accreted during three periods in the Mesozoic
  • The sandstones and ocean plate stratigraphy were structurally mixed in the mélange prior to and perhaps during Lhasa-Qiangtang collision