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Highlights include enriched and related content of notable journal articles presented on Eos org AGU org AGU On Demand and in AGU journals

On-the-Ground Measurements Overestimate the Earth’s Albedo

David Shultz, Freelance Writer

From Research Spotlights— Weather stations can be used to calibrate and validate albedo measurements from satellites, but they fail to account for variability across landscapes, overestimating how reflective our planet is. Albedo—a measurement of how much solar radiation is reflected back.... more

Observing Mercury’s Brilliant Flares from Earth

Emily Underwood, Freelance Writer

From Research Spotlights— Researchers make the first short-term observation of sodium flares in Mercury’s exosphere.  Mercury has no thick, gaseous atmosphere to protect it from the Sun. Instead, it has an exosphere: a thin covering of escaped atoms that is continuously formed as several processes.... more

New findings from computer simulation of the upper level of tropical cyclones

Editor’s Highlight—   This article presents the concept of gradient wind non-balance and shows that it is common in the developing stages of simulated tropical cyclones. “Non-balance” is defined as a mesoscale high pressure field that cannot be in a state of gradient wind balance, where the distribution.... more

Is El Niño really changing?

Editor’s Highlight—   This elegantly simple analysis shows that changes in key El Niño properties observed after the late 1970s, including the variance of surface and subsurface fields and the El Niño spectral characteristics, did not occur “by chance” but were linked to significant changes in the system.... more

A plausible cause for the seismic X-discontinuity

Editor’s Highlight—   The major seismic discontinuities in the Earth’s mantle (such as Moho, 410, 520, 660) can be well justified in terms of compositional or phase-change boundaries. However, the so-called X-discontinuity at about 200-300 km depth has long puzzled seismologists and mineral physicists..... more


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Featured Special Collection

Early Results: Juno at Jupiter 

Early results from Juno's mission at Jupiter including approach to Jupiter and the first perijove pass (PJ1). Juno's scientific objectives include the study of Jupiter's interior, atmosphere and polar magnetosphere with the goal of understanding Jupiter's origin, formation and evolution. This collection of papers provides early results from Juno's measurements of the gravity and magnetic fields, deep atmospheric microwave sounding, infrared, visible and ultraviolet images/spectra and an array of fields and particles instruments as well as context for the early results with respect to current theory and models of Jupiter's formation and evolution. Topics include both Juno - Jupiter related theoretical models and data analysis as well as collaborative observations made from Earth based assets.