Marine geology and geophysics

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Oceanic Crustal Evolution

10 February 1994
The concept that the rock formations which make up the ocean floor can change with time is relatively recent and is an idea that has itself undergone considerable evolution. Prior to the hypothesis of plate tectonics, the seafloor was thought of as unchanging and essentially ageless.

Subseafloor Metamorphism

10 May 1988
Metamorphism at mid-ocean ridges was indicated first by the presence of metabasites and peridotites in dredge hauls [e.g., Miyashiro et al., 1971]. Circulation of seawater through the oceanic crust was suggested as an explanation for the low average heat flow measurements at and near the mid-ocean ridges

Mapping the Seafloor

10 March 1986
The widespread use of echo sounders on oceanographic research vessels in the years following World War II revolutionized marine geology by providing a technique for routinely measuring the depth of the seafloor along a ship's track.

Atlantic Hydrothermal Activity

10 June 1993
Seafloor hydrothermal research has advanced rapidly from local to global scope through a sequence of discoveries. Hydrothermal research at seafloor spreading centers began in the mid-1960s with the discovery of hot metalliferous brines and sediments ponded in deeps along the slow spreading (half rate 1 cm yr-1) axis of the Red Sea

Tribute to H. W. Menard

10 April 1988
Henry William Menard, professor of geology at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, was one of the pioneers and leaders of the great period of exploration of the ocean floor that began after World War II. He led or participated in 25 deep-sea expeditions, mainly in the North Pacific and South Pacific oceans.

Volcanic and Hydrothermal Processes on the Southern Juan de Fuca Ridge

10 March 1994
In September 1986, during an investigation of the thermal and chemical properties of the water column overlying the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR), a plume of hydrothermal effluent of extraordinary size and heat content was discovered.

Honoring Richard P. Von Herzen

10 February 1983
Oceanography, and marine geophysics in particular, has always been as much a science of exploration as of experimentation. Even our most carefully planned and supposedly controlled experiments as often as not result in serendipitous but new physical insights into how the earth works.