Journal Highlights

Cosmic rays, aerosols, clouds, and climate: Recent findings from the CLOUD experiment


The Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiment was created to systematically test the link between galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and climate, specifically, the connection of ions from GCR to aerosol nucleation and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), the particles on which cloud droplets form. The CLOUD experiment subsequently unlocked many of the mysteries of nucleation and growth in our atmosphere, and it has improved our understanding of human influences on climate. Their most recent publication (Gordon et al., 2017) provides their first estimate of the GCR-CCN connection, and they show that CCN respond too weakly to changes in GCR to yield a significant influence on clouds and climate. More…

From Research Spotlights—Atmospheric Particles Aren’t the Same Cloud Seeds They Once Were

Still, more than half of the seeds required for cloud droplets to form in both the present-day and preindustrial atmospheres are made by trace gases that condense to form minute aerosol particles.

Water molecules cannot form cloud droplets by themselves. Instead, they must condense onto suspended aerosol particles, called cloud condensation nuclei. These nuclei can be particles emitted from Earth’s surface, such as salt crystals or specks of sand, or they can be formed in the air by the condensation of certain chemical compounds. Because the clouds reflect solar radiation, aerosol particles have a profound impact on the planet’s climate.

Scientists have long been interested in how human-generated emissions into the atmosphere affect this gas-to-particle conversion process. To find out, Gordon et alcompared how atmospheric gases formed cloud condensation nuclei before and after the Industrial Revolution.

The team made two computer simulations with a global aerosol model: one with natural levels of particle-forming gases before the Industrial Revolution and a second with Earth’s current atmosphere. The models used data from the European Organization for Nuclear Research’s (CERN) Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiment to simulate how vapors such as sulfuric acid, ammonia, organic compounds, and water combine to form aerosol particles. They also included the effect of ionization caused by cosmic rays on the new particle formation rates.

In the preindustrial atmosphere, the formation of new particles from vapors accounted for about two thirds of cloud-seeding particles. In the current atmosphere, new particle formation accounts for more than half of cloud formation. The authors’ results suggest that ions from cosmic rays are important, but the variation in the intensity of cosmic rays seen over the solar cycle does not have a significant radiative effect.

Furthermore, the team found that the global importance of different gases in the process has changed substantially as a result of human activity. Although biogenic vapors from trees and other vegetation are important for the formation and growth of new particles today (as seen in the photo above), they were even more important in the relatively unpolluted preindustrial atmosphere. In the future, as emissions controls lead to cleaner air, some of the sulfur- and soot-containing particles from fossil fuel burning will be replaced by smaller, probably less toxic, particles from trees once again.

-- Emily Underwood, Freelance Writer,

Article Category
Research Articles
Aerosol and Clouds

Causes and importance of new particle formation in the present‐day and preindustrial atmospheres

Hamish Gordon, Jasper Kirkby, Urs Baltensperger, Federico Bianchi, Martin Breitenlechner, Joachim Curtius, Antonio Dias, Josef Dommen, Neil M. Donahue, Eimear M. Dunne, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Richard C. Flagan, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Armin Hansel, Christopher R. Hoyle, Markku Kulmala, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Vladimir Makhmutov, Ugo Molteni, Matti P. Rissanen, Yuri Stozkhov, Jasmin Tröstl, Georgios Tsagkogeorgas, Robert Wagner, Christina Williamson, Daniela Wimmer, Paul M. Winkler, Chao Yan, Ken S. Carslaw
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Open Access