Journal Highlights

The Two-Stream Approach: Energizer Bunny of Kinetic Electron Physics

Editor’s Highlight—


The “two-stream” approach to calculating electron transport along a magnetic field line has been a standard technique since the late 1960s. It works well in the ionospheres of planets with strong internal dipole fields, such as Earth. It’s called a two-stream approach because it reduces electron flight direction from the full 4-pi steradian possibility of motion to just two values, with the B-field direction or against it (i.e., two streams of electrons). The author of this paper is the keeper of one such Earth electron transport two-stream code, the Global Airglow (GLOW) model. This paper presents an update of GLOW, with a few new features, and then uses it to explain an airglow feature of the upper atmosphere. This workhorse code is still going.