How microorganisms drive water convection
Biomixing in natural bodies of water is a controversial topic. The initial excitement about organisms mixing oceans with their swimming motions has subsided, and biomixing is now regarded as insignificant in the context of ocean mixing. But bioconvection driven by density difference between organisms and surrounding water, with vertical motions by organisms providing the necessary energy input to maintain convection, is conceptually more sound. This paper is an excellent example of combining field work with numerical experiments to test out a hypothesis.
- Article Category
- Research Letters
Bacteria‐induced mixing in natural waters
- First Published:
- | Vol:
- | DOI:
Eos.org: Earth & Space Science News
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The atmosphere varies naturally on all length scales from millimeters to thousands of kilometers, and on all time scales from seconds to decades and longer. This special collection of Geophysical Research Letters synthesizes and summarizes that variability through a phenomenological census. The collection brings together some of the most influential and definitive papers to have been published in this journal in recent years. The topics covered include turbulence on time scales of seconds and minutes, gravity waves on time scales of hours, weather systems on time scales of days, atmospheric blocking on time scales of weeks, the Madden–Julian Oscillation on time scales of months, the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and El Niño–Southern Oscillation on time scales of years, and the North Atlantic, Arctic, Antarctic, Pacific Decadal, and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillations on time scales of decades. The collection is accompanied by a Commentary article, which provides an authoritative, concise, and accessible point of reference for the most important modes of atmospheric variability.
A Census of Atmospheric Variability from Seconds to Decades