Journal Highlights

Diurnal atmosphere-ocean signals in Earth's rotation rate and a possible modulation through ENSO

Editors’ Highlight—This paper takes a mixed torque/angular momentum approach to study the effect of the S1 atmosphere/ocean tide on length-of-day. The authors show that the amplitude and phase of the S1 tide is modulated with the modulation being related to the ENSO phenomena. The results are surprising. For many years it was well accepted that torques were quantities less stable and precise than atmospheric angular momentum, which is a kind of integration; seeing the opposite is quite impressive as it indicates that the model precision has really made some progress. These results point the way to better modeling the effects of the S1 tide on length-of-day measurements and are an important contribution to the geodetic literature on this subject. 

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First Results from NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has been performing particle and electromagnetic field measurements in the near-Earth environment since its launch in March 2015. Thanks to data with unprecedented time resolution on four identical spacecraft in a close tetrahedron configuration (down to 10 km), MMS science goals are to probe and understand the electron-scale physics involved in the magnetic reconnection process. This collection provides a selection of key results obtained during the first phase of the mission at the dayside magnetopause. It includes new observations of the geometry and variability of the reconnection process, the detailed dynamics of particles, fields and waves in the vicinity of the reconnection region, the observation of small-scale signatures at current sheets formed in the magnetosheath, in Kevlin-Helmholtz vortices, or flux transfer events, as well as other small-scale features which are by-products of magnetic reconnection or not. These results open a new window for our understanding of magnetic reconnection in space, with direct and numerous implications for astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.