Journal Highlights

New approach to improve prediction of incoming high frequency signal angles

Editor’s Highlight—


This collaborative investigation presents findings that will improve high frequency (HF) geolocation with potential for major practical impact. The paper demonstrates full HF ionospheric electron density data assimilation using an ensemble of physics-based ionospheric model realizations including travelling ionospheric disturbances. The proposed method provides a significant improvement, specifically in the presence of severe ionospheric gradients caused by travelling ionospheric disturbances, over HF angle-of-arrival prediction using the IRI2012 empirical model or a spherically symmetric ionosphere derived from ionosonde measurements at a point halfway between the transmitter and receiver as employed in the method of single site location. The authors suggest further work on the model through the ingestion of ionosonde data as well as HF delay and Doppler observations, and data from multi-constellation observations of global navigation satellite systems signals.