Journal Highlights

An inverse method to derive surface fluxes from the closure of oceanic heat and water budgets: application to the north-western Mediterranean Sea

Editors’ Highlight—Closing heat and freshwater budgets is a difficult task as surface fluxes, advective transports and mixing all make a significant contribution to the budget. This study attempts to close such a budget for an area in the Mediterranean with the aid of a large number of observations in combination with numerical and theoretical models. The density of observations in this region makes it a great place for such a study. The results presented in this paper are the first surface flux data set constrained to match the upper ocean temperature/salinity structure. Having produced this, the authors show how other ways to produce surface fluxes (NWP models) have failings. This is an important result as work proceeds on climate studies using ocean models forced by these faulty surface flux fields.